Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn
The Quechua language (or group of closely related languages, depending on your perspective), is a Native American tongue with some eight to ten million speakers in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Quechua was actually encouraged in the colonial era: grammars, dictionaries and catechisms were written in the language, chairs for teaching the language were founded in Andean universities. But Quechua was scorned during the republican era, following independence from Spain (1809-1825). In recent years, the language has been recovering ground in a sense. It is starting to be used in schools and in political speech.
Wikipedia lists over 20,000 articles in Quechua. Popular on-line videos in Quechua include language lessons, the Jesus Film, films produced by students, and a rousing version of â€śHakuna Matataâ€ť. The talented Renata Flores plays â€śHouse of the Rising Sunâ€ť on the piano and sings it in Quechua, with heart and soul.
But there are few agricultural videos in Quechua. This is rather surprising, since the people who speak Quechua are fundamentally farmers. So we have remedied this, a bit.
Along with colleagues in Bolivia and at Agro-Insight, we have produced seven farmer training videos in Quechua. The same videos are also available in Aymara, the language native to the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia.
Only two of the videos were originally made in Bolivia: one on managing the poisonous aflatoxins in peanuts (groundnuts) and one on tarwi (the lupine bean). Other videos were originally shot in other countries (shown in brackets):
Integrated Soil Fertility Management (various African countries)
Letâ€™s Talk Money: Â simple cost:benefit accounting for new farm technology (Mali)
The Wonder of Earthworms (Bangladesh)
Grass Strips against Soil Erosion (Vietnam and Thailand)
Till Less to Harvest More (Guatemala)
You may wonder why we translated existing videos instead of making new ones. Cost is one reason. It is much cheaper and easier to translate a video than to make one. Besides, many of the Quechua videos already on the web are basically translations of other work.Â If that works for entertainment, it should be OK for farming.
Farmers understand learning videos other continents, provided the voice over is in a language that the audience speaks. Videos are a way of sharing knowledge from farmer-to-farmer cross culturally.
We hope that speakers of Quechua and Aymara will enjoy seeing smallholders, like themselves, farming and solving problems in Asia, Africa and Central America.
The videos are hosted in the public domain at the Access Agriculture portal, which has many videos in African and Asian languages. These are the siteâ€™s first videos in Native American languages.
Videos in Quechua
To watch the videos in Quechua, visit Access Agriculture here.
Videos in Aymara
You can also watch videos in Aymara here.
The translations were funded by the McKnight Foundation
VIDEOS QUE HABLAN A LOS AGRICULTORES ANDINOS
Por Jeff Bentley, 26 de marzo del 2017
El quechua es un idioma (o grupo de idiomas muy cercanos, segĂşn su perspectiva), nativo a las AmĂ©ricas, con unos ocho a diez millones de hablantes en Bolivia, PerĂş y Ecuador. Los gobiernos coloniales efectivamente fomentaron el uso del quechua: gramĂˇticas, diccionarios y catequismos se escribieron en el idioma y se fundaron cĂˇtedras para enseĂ±ar el idioma en las universidades andinas. Pero el quechua fue desprestigiado en la era republicana, despuĂ©s de la independencia de EspaĂ±a (1809-1825). En aĂ±os recientes, el idioma se ha cobrado fuerzas. Empieza a usarse en los colegios y en discursos polĂticos.
Wikipedia dice que tiene mĂˇs de 20,000 artĂculos en quechua. Videos populares en lĂnea incluyen lecciones para aprender el idioma, pelĂculas producidas por estudiantes, JesĂşs (la pelĂcula) y una versiĂłn emocionante de â€śHakuna Matataâ€ť. La talentosa Renata Flores toca â€śHouse of the Rising Sunâ€ť en el piano y lo canta en quechua, con alma y corazĂłn.
Pero hay pocos videos agrĂcolas en quechua, lo cual es sorprendente, ya que las personas que habla el idioma son fundamentalmente agricultores. Entonces hemos hecho algo para cambiar la situaciĂłn.
Junto con colegas en Bolivia y en Agro-Insight, hemos producido siete videos didĂˇcticos en quechua. Los mismos videos tambiĂ©n estĂˇn disponibles en aymara, el idioma nativo a la regiĂłn del Lago Titicaca del PerĂş y Bolivia.
Solo dos de los videos se rodaron originalmente en Bolivia: uno sobre el manejo de las venenosas aflatoxinas en manĂ, y uno sobre el tarwi (chocho, o lupino). Otros videos se filmaron originalmente en otros paĂses (indicados entre parĂ©ntesis):
Manejo Integrado de la Fertilidad del Suelo (varios paĂses africanos)
Hablemos del Dinero: contabilidad sencillo para costo:beneficio de nueva tecnologĂa agrĂcola (MalĂ)
La Maravillosa Lombriz de Tierra (Bangladesh)
Barreras Vivas contra la ErosiĂłn del Suelo (Vietnam y Tailandia)
Arar Menos para Cosechar MĂˇs (Guatemala)
Tal vez se pregunta porque tradujimos videos existentes en vez de hacer nuevos videos. El costo es una razĂłn. Es mucho mĂˇs barato y fĂˇcil traducir un video que hacer uno. AdemĂˇs, muchos de los videos en quechua que ya estĂˇn en la Web son bĂˇsicamente traducciones de otras obras. Si eso vale para el entretenimiento, tambiĂ©n funciona para el agro.
Los agricultores entienden a los videos didĂˇcticos de otros paĂses, con tal que la narraciĂłn sea en un idioma que el pĂşblico hable. Los videos son una manera de compartir el conocimiento de campesino-a-campesino de forma intercultural.
Esperamos que los hablantes del quechua y del aymara disfruten de ver a campesinos, como ellos mismos, trabajando y resolviendo problemas en Asia, Africa y CentroamĂ©rica.
Los videos estĂˇn alojados en el dominio pĂşblico en el portal de Access Agriculture, que tiene muchos videos en idiomas africanos y asiĂˇticos. Pero los presentes son los primeros videos en el sitio en idiomas nativas a las AmĂ©ricas.
Videos en quechua
Para mirar los videos en quechua, visite a Access Agriculture aquĂ.
Videos in Aymara
Se puede mirar los videos en aymara aquĂ.
Las traducciones se fundaron por la McKnight Foundation
Itâ€™s difficult to know who reads a fact sheet, listens to a radio broadcast or watches a farmer learning video, but those of us who produce such information always want to know what happens to it, once it leaves our hands. In 2011 my colleagues at Access Agriculture tried a new way to do audience research. Access Agriculture and partners distributed 20,000 copies of a DVD on striga (the devil weed) across East Africa. Each copy contained a questionnaire, formatted as a letter, asking the viewers to tick off a few boxes and mail back the letter in the post. No one bothered to return the survey.
So in 2015, PhD candidate GĂ©rard Zoundji tried a slightly different way to get feedback from viewers in Benin, as he explains in a recent paper in Cogent Food & Agriculture. First he compiled a DVD in five languages, with nine different videos on growing vegetables. Next, GĂ©rard distributed his DVD through the private sector, mainly through agro-input dealers and people who sell movie DVDs. Previously DVDs had been distributed through extension providers, NGOs or government agencies, not from small shops.
GĂ©rard asked the vendors to collect names and phone numbers of people who bought the DVD, so he could do follow up work with the buyers. GĂ©rard gave the vendors the DVDs for free, in exchange for their cooperation, but allowed them to keep the equivalent of a dollar or two which they collected for each sale. He also tried a new way of doing follow up. He put a sticker in the DVD jacket, with a note inviting the recipients to phone in if they had questions. The number was for a SIM card that GĂ©rard bought, just to receive such calls.
It was a pleasant surprise when people started phoning in. Of 562 who bought the DVD, a whopping 341 phoned GĂ©rard. Some just called to say how much they had enjoyed watching the videos. Others wanted to share their story. Nearly 20% of them had been so eager to watch the videos that they bought their own DVD player. Others called to ask where they could buy the drip irrigation equipment featured on one of the videos.
The six agro-input dealers who were selling the DVD were also impressed with the video on drip irrigation, and the interest it inspired in farmers. Two of these dealers actually began to stock drip irrigation supplies themselves.
As Paul has written in an earlier post, farmers who have been exposed to drip irrigation through development projects usually abandon drip irrigation once the project ends. Projects usually make little effort to involve the private sector. Yet here were dealers who were motivated enough to find out where to buy the drip irrigation equipment, and stock it, in response to interest shown by farmers who had watched a video. Sometimes simply watching a video can excite people more than participating in a full project.
I am always delighted to learn about someone using a cell phone in a new way, especially if it involves giving rural people the chance to make their voices heard. A sticker inside a DVD cover was enough to encourage buyers of a DVD to call in with comments.
Since publishing the paper, GĂ©rard has been discussing with Ministry of Agriculture staff in Benin about ways to design an advisory service via phone call.
Agro-input dealers and movie DVDs sellers, including some who were not involved in the study are now requesting new DVDs to sell.
In this story we see the phone was linked with the DVD. Both are ICTs (information and communication technologies), but the connection between the two was one of the oldest ICTs: the printed word on paper.
Zoundji, GĂ©rard C., Florent Okry, Simplice D. VodouhĂŞ, and Jeffery W. Bentley 2016 â€śThe Distribution of Farmer Learning Videos: Lessons from Non-Conventional Dissemination Networks in Benin.â€ť Cogent Food & Agriculture 2(1):1277838. https://www.accessagriculture.org/publications
Related blog stories
Watch all nine of the vegetable videos
New ideas spark the imagination of smallholders, whether they have experience with the topic or not. We saw this last week in Nanegaon, a village just outside of the booming city of Pune, India, where farmers reviewed four fact sheets written by our 12 adult students.
A fact sheet is only one page, so it has to narrow in on a specific topic. The first fact sheet suggested cleaning maggots from wounds on cattle with turpentine, a common disinfectant distilled from pine resin. One man, Hanumant Pawale, read the fact sheet quickly, pronouncing the text clearly in a booming voice. When he finished, several farmers began to speak, adding ideas they wanted to include in the fact sheet. The first woman said that here they treat the cowsâ€™ wounds with kerosene, which is cheaper than turpentine, and is available at shops in the village. Her neighbors mentioned other products to treat cattle.
We had wondered how farmers removed maggots. One of the farmers went to get a pair of tweezers to show us the tool that he used for plucking maggots from a wounded cow. Tweezers may be too sharp for such a delicate operation, but every household has a pair of tweezers, and they work if you are careful not to poke the cowâ€™s flesh.
The farmers shared another important insight with us: it is best to avoid letting maggots grow in wounds in the first place. The villagers keep their cattle healthy by looking for wounds. Cows lick their wounds, the villagers explain, and if people see a cow licking her wound, they know that she needs some care.
The authors of the fact sheets got excited about improving their fact sheet by taking the farmersâ€™ ideas on board.
It was a great meeting, but there was one little problem. After the first woman spoke, only men took the floor. Later I mentioned this to Pooja, one of our participants.
â€śThe women wonâ€™t speak if the men are there,â€ť she says matter-of-factly.
After meeting with the dairy farmers I went with two young men, Ajinkya and Pradeepta, who were writing a fact sheet on mulch: a simple layer of straw or leaves put on the soil surface to keep in moisture. We met a farmer, Mukta Naranyan Sathe, who was just setting down a pile of small, delicate legumes onto a tarp, for threshing.
Mukta-ji had never heard of mulch, but she was interested. After reading the fact sheet, she understood that mulch helps to conserve water. But, she told us that she did not really need to conserve water, because Nanegaon has abundant irrigation, provided by seven or eight bore-hole wells.
Even so, the fact sheet still inspired her to think creatively. She imagined that a large plant could be mulched with whole straw, but for a fragile herb, like fenugreek, the straw would have to be cut into small pieces.
We were soon joined by Muktaâ€™s great nephew, Ganesh Dhide and a friend, Shubhan Pawale. They read the fact sheet and then all of them began to imagine ways of making mulch. They said that instead of burning the leaves off of sugarcane (a common practice which makes the cane easier to harvest), they could use them as a mulch.
They added that they now have a clear idea of mulching and that if one person tries it, and it works, the others in the village will surely adopt the new ideas as well.
The villagers could tell us practical ways to cure wounded cows but didnâ€™t know about mulching until the fact sheet caught their imagination. Even so, they thought of two new ways to make mulch not mentioned in the fact sheet: cutting straw for fenugreek, and using sugarcane leaves. Farmers are inherently creative, and relish new ideas. We do not know if the farmers will adopt any of the ideas in the fact sheets, but before trying a technology one must first imagine doing something new. Our readers had already taken that step.
Other blog stories on writing fact sheets
The first photo is by Mohan Dhuldhar. The second one is by Ajinkya Upasani.
Agricultural extension can work deep changes in farmersâ€™ attitudes. Ironically, the extensionists themselves often think that a change in heart is difficult to achieve, so it was good to meet some inspired farmers last week in Tamil Nadu, India, while teaching a course with Paul Van Mele to agricultural researchers and extension agents.
We wrote four fact sheets with advice for farmers and we wanted to show the papers to real farmers, as a kind of peer review. One of the participants, Mrs. P. Tamilselvi, took us to the village of Seethapappi, where she works as an extensionist. The course participants, mostly agricultural researchers, formed small groups and found farmers to talk to.
We approached a farmhouse, where entomologist K. Bharathidasan called out, asking if anyone was home. When a surprised couple emerged, Bharathidasan introduced himself and soon had the farmers reading a fact sheet in Tamil on groundnut stem rot.
After Mr. C. Sekar read the fact sheet he talked about an organic agricultural concoction he used as a fertilizer and insecticide. He called it pancha kaviya, alluding to five ingredients it contained. Bharathidasan wrote down the recipe:
Mix 1) cow dung, 2) cow urine, 3) ghee, milk and curd, 4) coconut water and 5) jiggery (a candy) or sugarcane juice. Mix the ingredients thoroughly. Keep for 45 days. Filter the liquid directly into a sprayer and spray the crop.
This was only the first of many natural agro-chemicals farmers in this village described to us. Sekar also makes an organic pesticide with eight types of local plants. He adds them to cow urine and keeps them for 20 days. Then he filters the liquid and sprays it on his crops.
When Mrs. Sekar read the fact sheet she mentioned another organic pesticide. Two more farmers had their own recipe for a home brew to spray on plants.
Farmer Prakash Kanna showed us a batch of pancha kaviya heâ€™d made, a dull brown mix in a plastic drum. It had a strong, sour smell. He put it in irrigation water to fertilize his plants. He called it a growth regulator. (The pancha kaviya adds nutrients and beneficial flora and fauna to the soil).
The farmers said they also used marigold extract and gypsum powder to control various diseases in groundnuts (peanuts). And they enhance the soil with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas, mixed with aged cow dung which helps the bacteria multiply and suppress fungi that cause disease.
Thatâ€™s quite a lot of innovation.
Bharathidasan later told me that the farmers really liked the fact sheets, except for the references to chemicals. That wasnâ€™t surprising given the many non-chemical options the villagers were using.
Later that week we visited another village, Panayaburam, slightly larger than Seethapappi, with a small cooperative office where the farmers met.
Here we quickly learned of a different set of attitudes. The farmers did mention neem oil and using a net to keep small insect pests out of vegetables, but many said that â€śhere we only use chemicals.â€ť One went so far as to say that if you used a mix made from cow dung on your plants, the other farmers would say that you were insane.
Anthropologists have long known that each village is unique; conclusions drawn in one village may not apply to neighboring ones. Even so, such a big difference in attitudes to chemicals was surprising. Seethapappi farmers said that they liked everything in the fact sheets, except for the chemicals. In Panayaburam farmers only wanted to know about pesticides to manage pests and diseases.
There is one major difference between these two villages. Organic-leaning Seethapappi has a KVK (farm science center), where farmers receive training and get advice. Extension agents in that KVK have generated a lot of excitement about making inputs from local materials. Panayaburam does not have a KVK, and farmers rely on the biased advice of agro-chemical dealers to keep plants healthy.
A KVK is a permanent structure, with a building and staff, working with farmers over the years. Extensionists may become frustrated with the pace of change because farmers seldom adopt a new technique instantly. Smallholders have to try out innovations on their own. Extension agents can and do make a difference in farmersâ€™ attitudes about agrochemicals, even if it takes time.
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn
Mycotoxins are poisons produced by common mold fungi. The best known examples are aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus, which are of increasing concern worldwide because they contaminate Â many types of stored foods, including groundnuts (peanuts), manioc, maize (corn) and chilli. Aflatoxins affect the health of people and animals and are powerful carcinogens if Â enough is consumed. Like many successful poisons, aflatoxins are invisible and tasteless, so they are tricky to manage.
The other week, I was in Chuquisaca, Bolivia, with Paul and Marcella from Agro-Insight, making a video for farmers on how to manage molds and reduce contamination of food. Part of the solution is surprisingly low-tech.
The first step is to recognize the molds. They look like a dark green powder, growing between the pink skin of the peanuts and the white layer of the shell around them. Farmer Dora Campos explains that the people in her village, Achiras, used to dismiss the molds, saying simply that the pods were rotten. Farmers would salvage the bad nuts by feeding them to pigs or chickens, and some people would even eat the rotten nuts. Thanks to what theyâ€™ve learned in recent years, the villagers now bury the spoiled peanuts.
Aspergillus survives on organic matter in the soil, within easy reach of peanut pods, for example. Antonio Medina showed us how he dried his peanut pods off the ground, as soon as they are harvested, to stop the mold contaminating them. This keeps the nuts as clean and dry as possible.
Like most fungi, Aspergillus needs water to thrive. Don Antonio shows us how the farmers pick through the whole pile of harvested peanuts, after drying, when the pods are cleaner and the bad ones are easier to spot. The farmers go through the harvest one pod at a time, discarding all of the spoiled or discolored pods. It takes time, but it is a technique that smallholders can use to produce a high-quality product, based on thoughtfulness and hard work.
Agronomist Edwin Mariscal is trying a simple solar dryer with many of the farmers he works with. Mr. Mariscal introduces us to Santiago GutiĂ©rrez, who has built one of the dryers: a wooden frame raised off the ground and covered with a sheet of tough, sun-resistant plastic. Mr. Mariscal has been working with similar dryers in the field, with farmers for years. The dryers started as a metal version for drying peaches, but experience showed that the dryers worked just as well if they were made from wooden poles cut on the farm.
Don Santiago, and his wife Emiliana, explain that the dryer works beautifully. Peanuts dry even in the rain. The family can also put maize and chilli into the structure, to dry those foods free of aflatoxin.
You can keep deadly aflatoxins out of food by following a few simple principles, including harvesting on time (not too late, or the Aspergillus has more time to get into the pods). Keep the produce off the ground. Dry it out of the rain and remove the moldy pieces. Store produce in a cool, dry place, off the floor.
Thanks to FundaciĂłn Valles for information for this article, and for supporting our filming in the field. The video production was funded by the McKnight Foundation.
To watch the video
Watch and download the farmer training video: Managing aflatoxins in groundnuts during drying and storage
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EVITAR UN ASESINO SILENCIOSO
Por Jeff Bentley, 12 de febrero del 2017
Las micotoxinas sonÂ venenos producidos por mohos de hongos comunes. Los ejemplos mĂˇs conocidos son aflatoxinas, producidas por Aspergillus, que son de interĂ©s actual porque contaminan muchas clases de alimentos almacenados, incluso manĂs (cacahuates), yuca, maĂz y chile (ajĂ). Las aflatoxinas afectan la salud de la gente y de los animales y son Â cancerĂgenos poderosos si se consume lo suficiente. Como muchos venenos exitosos, las aflatoxinas son invisibles y sin sabor, entonces son difĂciles de manejar.
La otra semana, estuve en Chuquisaca, Bolivia, con Paul y Marcella de Agro-Insight, haciendo un video para agricultores sobre cĂłmo manejar mohos y reducir la contaminaciĂłn de los alimentos. Felizmente, parte de la soluciĂłn es el uso de tecnologĂa apropiada.
El primer paso es reconocer a los mohos. Parecen un polvo verdusco oscuro, que crece entre la piel roja del manĂ y la capa blanca de la cĂˇscara. La agricultora Dora Campos explica que antes, la gente de su comunidad, Achiras, no daba importancia a los mohos, diciendo simplemente que Â las vainas estaban podridas. Los agricultores rescataban los manĂs malos, dĂˇndoles de comer a sus chanchos o gallinas, y algunas personas hasta comĂan los granos podridos. Gracias a lo que han aprendido en los Ăşltimos aĂ±os, ahora los comuneros saben enterrar los granos podridos.
Aspergillus sobrevive en la materia orgĂˇnica del suelo, al alcance de las vainas de manĂ, por ejemplo. Antonio Medina nos mostrĂł cĂłmo Ă©l secaba sus vainas en un toldo al cosecharlas, para evitar que el moho las contamine. Eso ayuda a mantener a los manĂs limpios y secos. Como la mayorĂa de los hongos, el Aspergillus necesita agua para vivir.
Don Antonio nos muestra cĂłmo los agricultores escogen todos los manĂs cosechados, despuĂ©s de secarlos, cuando las vainas son mĂˇs limpias y es mĂˇs fĂˇcil ver las malas. Los agricultores revisan toda su cosecha, una vaina a la vez, descartando las vainas malas o descoloridas. Toma tiempo, pero es una tĂ©cnica que los campesinos pueden usar para producir un producto de alta calidad, trabajando en forma consciente.
El Ing. Edwin Mariscal estĂˇ probando un simple secador solar con varias familias. El Ing. Mariscal nos presenta a Santiago GutiĂ©rrez, que ha construido uno de los secadores: una tarima de palos como una mesa, cubierto de una hoja de plĂˇstico fuerte y resistente al sol. El Ing. Mariscal ha trabajado con secadores parecidos en el campo, con agricultores, durante varios aĂ±os. Los secadores empezaron como una versiĂłn metĂˇlica para secar duraznos, pero la experiencia mostrĂł que los secadores funcionaban igual si se hacĂan de palos cortados en la zona.
Don Santiago, y su esposa Emiliana, explican que el secador funciona bien bonito. Los manĂs secan hasta en la lluvia. La familia tambiĂ©n lo usa para secar maĂz y ajĂ, para evitar aflatoxina en ellos.
Se puede mantener los alimentos libres de las aflatoxinas letales siguiendo unos principios sencillos, como cosechar a tiempo (no muy tarde, o el Aspergillus tendrĂˇ mĂˇs tiempo para entrar a las vainas). No secar el producto en el suelo. Evitar que entre la lluvia al producto y saque las piezas podridas. Almacene en un lugar seco y fresco, no en el piso.
La FundaciĂłn Valles nos proporcionĂł informaciĂłn para este artĂculo, y apoyĂł nuestra filmaciĂłn en el campo. Este video ha sido financiado por Programa Colaborativo de InvestigaciĂłn de Cultivos (CCRP) de la McKnight Foundation.
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