A plant has a personality and, like people and countries, some have stronger characters than others. Take the lupin bean (Lupinus mutabilis), for example. It is an oddly erect legume that forms a sort of cone shape, and its glorious flowers make the plant wildly popular with gardeners in many countries. In Bolivia it is called âtarwiâ, from Quechua, the language of the Incas.
While making a video in Bolivia, my colleagues and I asked doĂ±a Eleuteria in the village of Phinkina to tell us what she planted after harvesting tarwi. She surprised me by saying that sometimes she followed tarwi with potatoes. Thatâs astounding, because potatoes are such a demanding crop that Andean farmers often rest the soil for years before planting a field to potatoes. Otherwise the soil may be improved by adding tons of chicken manure. Bolivian farmers in the Andes donât buy manure for other crops, just the fussy and valuable potato.
I followed up by asking Reynaldo Herbas, from the village of Tijraska, if he had ever planted potatoes right after tarwi. âYes, and it does very well. Planting tarwi is like fallowing your soil, or like using chicken manure,â he explained.
Tarwi seeds are also rich in oils and proteins and doĂ±a Eleuteria regularly feeds lupin beans to her children. Like some other Bolivians doĂ±a Eleuteria make a nutritious snack by boiling the seeds, but itâs a lot of work. The grains need to be soaked in water for three days before boiling, then left in the running water of the river for several days to wash out the bitter alkaloids.
Agronomist Juan Vallejos from Proinpa (a research institute) confirmed that tarwi takes a lot of water to process. This is ironic, because tarwi is recommended for dry areas with impoverished soils. Sweet varieties without the bitter alkaloids do exist, but in Bolivia the search for these sweet lupins is only just starting.
While visiting doĂ±a Eleuteria to learn about processing seed, she showed us how to pick out the bad grains of tarwi, to ensure that the crop planted from them would be healthy. (The main disease is anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). We asked doĂ±a Eleuteria what she did with the diseased grains. We thought that she might say that she buried them to keep the disease from spreading. But no, she buries the discarded grains because raw lupin beans are toxic, whether they are healthy or diseased.
âI do bury them,â she explained, âbecause they are so bitter that if the chickens eat them they will die.â
Agronomist Vallejos explained that tarwi plants are so packed with alkaloids that sheep and cattle will not touch a crop growing in the field. However, the lupin plant is drought resistant and even withstands hail, which often mows down other food crops in the Andes. Local governments in Bolivia are starting to promote tarwi as a way of adapting to climate change.
A plant may have a complex personality, with sterling qualities as well as some tragic defects. Tarwi or lupin is in many ways a perfect crop: well-suited to the punishing climate of the High Andes while nutritious for people and good for the soil. The downside is that you need lots of water to process the beans and to leach out the poisons that can kill your unsuspecting chickens.
For this story in Cochabamba, Bolivia, I was fortunate enough to be accompanied by Paul Van Mele and Marcella Vrolijks of Agro-Insight and Juan Vallejos and Maura Lazarte and others from Proinpa. The visit was funded by the McKnight Foundation.
Calisaya, J.J., Â M. Lazarte, R. Oros, P. Mamani 2016 âDesarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones TecnolĂłgicas para Incrementar la Productividad de los Suelos AgrĂcolas en Regiones Andinas Deprimidas de Bolivia.â Read at the Community of Practice meeting, McKnight Foundation, Ibarra, Ecuador 11-16 July. See the paper here.
The farmer training video âGrowing a good lupine cropâ will be hosted on the Access Agriculture website shortly in English, Spanish, Quechua and Aymara.
CULTIVO CON CARĂCTER FUERTE
Por Jeff Bentley
29 de enero del 2017
Una planta tiene una personalidad, y como la gente y los paĂses, algunos tienen mĂĄs carĂĄcter que otros. Considere el lupino (Lupinus mutabilis), por ejemplo. Es una leguminosa que crece casi en forma de cono, y gracias a sus flores gloriosas la planta es querida por jardineros en muchos paĂses. En Bolivia se llama âtarwiâ, del quechua, el idioma de los Incas.
Mientas mis colegas y yo filmĂĄbamos un video en Bolivia, pedimos que doĂ±a Eleuteria en la comunidad de Phinquina nos contara quĂ© sembraba despuĂ©s de cosechar el tarwi. Ella nos sorprendiĂł cuando dijo que a veces sembraba papa despuĂ©s del tarwi. Es increĂble, porque las papas son tan exigentes que muchos agricultores andinos descansan el suelo durante aĂ±os antes de sembrar papas. Si no, el suelo tendrĂĄ que mejorarse agregando toneladas de gallinaza. Los agricultores en los Andes bolivianos no compran gallinaza para otros cultivos, solo la mimada y valiosa papa.
Luego le preguntĂ© a Reynaldo Herbas de la comunidad de Tijraska, si Ă©l jamĂĄs habĂa sembrado papas despuĂ©s del tarwi. âSĂ, y produce muy bien. El sembrar tarwi es como descansar sus suelo, o como usar gallinaza,â explicĂł.
Los granos de tarwi son ricos en aceites y proteĂnas y doĂ±a Eleuteria a menudo los da de comer a sus hijos. Igual que algunas otras bolivianas, doĂ±a Eleuteria hace una merienda nutritiva con los granos cocidos, pero cuesta mucho trabajo. Los granos tienen que remojarse en agua durante tres dĂas antes de cocerse, para despuĂ©s dejarlos en el chorro del rĂo durante varios dĂas mĂĄs para expulsar los amargos alcaloides.
El Ing. AgrĂłnomo Juan Vallejos de Proinpa (un instituto de investigaciĂłn) confirmĂł que el tarwi toma mucha agua para procesarse. Es irĂłnico, porque el tarwi se recomienda para zonas secas con suelos empobrecidos. Existen variedades dulces, sin los alcaloides amargos, pero en Bolivia reciĂ©n empieza la bĂșsqueda por esos lupinos dulces.
Cuando visitamos a doĂ±a Eleuteria para aprender cĂłmo ella procesa la semilla, nos mostrĂł cĂłmo quitar los granos malos de tarwi, para asegurarse que el cultivo que siembra serĂĄ sano. (La enfermedad principal es la antracnosis, causada por el hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Preguntamos a doĂ±a Eleuteria quĂ© hacĂa con los granos enfermos. PensĂĄbamos que dirĂa que los enterraba para que las enfermedades no se diseminaran. Pero no, ella entierra a los granos descartados porque los granos crudos de tarwi son tĂłxicos, bien sea sanos o enfermos.
El Ing. Vallejos explicĂł que las plantas de tarwi estĂĄn tan cargadas de alcaloides que las ovejas y vacas no tocan al cultivo en la parcela. Sin embargo, la planta de tarwi es resistente a la sequĂa y hasta aguanta a la granizada, que a menudo arrasa con otros cultivos en los Andes. Los gobiernos locales en Bolivia empiezan a promover el tarwi como una adaptaciĂłn al cambio climĂĄtico.
Una planta puede tener una personalidad compleja, con cualidades de oro igual que algunos defectos trĂĄgicos. El tarwi o lupino en muchas maneras en el cultivo perfecto: bien adaptado a los desafĂos del clima altoandino, mientras es nutritivo para la gente y bueno para el suelo. Su lado oscuro es que requiere de mucha agua para lavar los venenos que pueden matar a tus gallinas inocentes.
Para escribir este cuento en Cochabamba, Bolivia, tuve la buena suerte de estar acompaĂ±ado de Paul Van Mele y Marcella Vrolijks de Agro-Insight y Juan Vallejos y Maura Lazarte y otros de Proinpa. La visita se financiĂł por la McKnight Foundation.
Para leer mĂĄs
Calisaya, J.J., Â M. Lazarte, R. Oros, P. Mamani 2016 âDesarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones TecnolĂłgicas para Incrementar la Productividad de los Suelos AgrĂcolas en Regiones Andinas Deprimidas de Bolivia.â Trabajo presentado en la reuniĂłn de la Comunidad de PrĂĄctica, McKnight Foundation, Ibarra, Ecuador 11-16 de julio. Ver la presentaciĂłn aquĂ.
Para ver mĂĄs
El video educativo para agricultores âProducir tarwi sin enfermedadâ se colocarĂĄ pronto en el sitio web de Agriculture en inglĂ©s, espaĂ±ol, quechua y aymara.
Hunting (along with gathering wild plants) is humanityâs oldest profession. In ancient times, peoples thrived or vanished depending on their hunting skills. Experiences passed on from elders and life-long observations meant that hunters fully understood the behaviour of the animals they hunted. Ecological knowledge mattered more than anything else for survival.
As people began to domesticate crops, some animals adjusted their behaviour and began feeding in farmersâ fields. The first farms were surrounded by large areas of wild lands, and birds and mammals may have been some of the first pests.
While visiting a primary school in Malawi during a fact sheet and video script writing workshop, I was surprised to see a poster with drawings of what it said were the common pests of cassava. Clearly, skills to manage larger pests are still highly needed in rural areas.
Nowadays, few people live from hunting, but it remains an important pass-time in many areas, and hunters are still occasionally called upon by farmers.
Whenever soya farmers in northern Benin have problems with wild rabbits, they supply local hunters with free bullets and entice them to organise night hunting sessions.
In a previous blog Bullets and birds I talked about Vera and Johan, organic farmers in Belgium, who negotiated with local hunters to keep pigeons from feeding on the young cabbage seedlings.
Dominiek Gielen, my brother-in-law, told me how his father Tien used to spend hours in farmersâ fields after working his day shift in the coal mine. As patches of forests had been cleared and turned into farming land, moles had become a real pest to such an extent that Tien quickly knew all about moles and how to catch them, always at the same time of the day.
Last year, as we were making a training video on climbing beans in Uganda, I learned that moles were also a key pest for farmers there. And likewise, farmers call upon young, knowledgeable âmole huntersâ. They put a bait in the tunnel, bend a stick and attach a rope in such a way that when the mole comes to the bait, it is snatched up and pulled out of its tunnel. Farmers pay 5000 Ugandan Shilling (1.3 Euro) for each mole they catch.
The last few days, I have had the luck to be able to interact with farmers in Tamil Nadu, southern India, while training partners from Access Agriculture to produce farmer training videos. Many farmers here have so-called integrated farms, growing crops, trees, and rearing animals and fish on their farm. Fingerlings, or young fish, are the most expensive input of fish pond farming. Maran, one of the young members of the Koveri Inland Fish Farmers, told me how via the village canal that feeds water into his pond, 20 large turtles had entered the pond and were devouring his young fish. Turtles are such a common pest that Maran could call upon turtle hunters. By making noise and using spears the large turtles ended up as a feast for the hunters and their neighbours. On top, for each turtle caught Maran paid them 50 Rupees (about 0.66 Euro).
As the various examples above have shown, hunters have a unique set of skills and continue to provide specialised services to farming communities. Farmer training videos offer a unique opportunity to document and pay tribute to these professionals.
To watch training videos that include examples of farmers working with hunters, visit:
Stocking fingerlings in a nursery pond (available on www.accessagriculture.orgÂ soon)
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All over Africa, small shops are offering affordable movies and music videos on DVDs and memory cards. In Malawi the shopkeepers who sell videos are called DJs.
In 2014, in Malawi, the international NGO Access Agriculture asked me and Malawian media expert, Ronald Kondwani Udedi, to meet some of these DJs and to explore their interest in distributing farmer training videos.
Later, Ronald travelled around southern Malawi, giving DVDs of farmer learning videos to some 70 DJs. Ronald gave away the DVDs for free, but told the DJs they could sell the videos to farmers; we hoped that the profit motive would encourage the DJs to copy the DVDs, and to install the videos onto farmersâ phones.
Ronald compiled 3 DVDs: one on chilli, one on rice and one on Striga, a parasitic weed. The videos were in English and in local languages: Chichewa, Senna, Yao and Tumbuka.
We wondered what happened when the videos left the DJâs shop. Did the farmer-customers watch the videos and learn from them? Bear in mind that the farmers got these DVDs cold, with no one to answer questions. The videos had to be completely self-explanatory.
To answer this question, last week Ronald and I visited two farmers who had picked up the Striga DVD from DJs. Ronald rang up one farmer, Patrick Sungani, and introduced himself. Even though the call was a total surprise, Sungani readily agreed to meet us.
Sungani is a young smallholder in Mwanza district, in a village 14 km off the highway. Sungani bought his video at a shop near Mwanza town, on the Mozambique border, some 20 km from home.
Sungani watched the Striga videos with his friends. They learned that Striga reproduces by tiny seeds. Sungani, like many other farmers, had seen the Striga seeds without realizing what they were actually seeds. Sungani and four of his friends organized themselves to uproot Striga plants before it could set seed, just as the videos suggested.
As we went to look at Sunganiâs garden, he showed us old, dry Striga plants in neighborsâ fields. He shook some of the seed capsules, to show us the dust-like seeds. His own garden was free of Striga. He and his friends had plucked all the Striga from five neighboring fields.
Sungani watched the videos many times, which farmers often do when they have their own copy. African smallholders recognize Striga as a weed, but the plant spends much of its life underground and seems to appear late in the year, so many farmers do not realize how much damage Striga causes. Sungani learned that Striga âIs a unique plant. Its seed is like a dust. You canât see the plant when it is inside the ground. I learned that it is a dangerous weed and how to control it.â
We visited a second farmer, Lester Gandari, in Thambani, a town that is barely more than a farm village. Gandari was attracted to the idea of intercropping maize with cowpeas, another innovation shown in the video.Â Legumes, like cowpeas, are trap crops that kill Striga before it can attach its parasitic roots to the maize roots. Gandari decided to alternate one hill (a cluster of two or three plants) of maize and one of cowpea, even though the video teaches several other patterns of intercropping, in alternate rows. Gandari had understood the basic idea from the video (intercropping legumes and grains controls Striga) so well that he could experiment with intercropping in ways not shown in the video.
Gandari was pleased with his efforts to control Striga. âIt worked well. I have bumper crops of maize and of cowpea.â
Like Sungani, Gandari had watched the videos several times. Sungani then showed them to about 30 other farmers; about half of them were women. Gandari will continue to watch the videos âbecause there is (still) more to learn.â Gandari is excited about videos now, and would like to see some on maize, eggplant, sugar cane, bananas, and potatoes.
These finely crafted videos feature real farmers, speaking on camera, explaining practical innovations. The videos capture the audiencesâ imagination, and inspire them to experiment with the technologies. Â No one convinces a smallholder like another farmer, even when (or especially when) they are on video.
Stories about striga videos in Africa FightingÂ strigaÂ and improving soil fertility with videos in Mali, Killing the vampire flower, Travels around the sun, Â I thought you said âN’Togonassoâ, and The truth of local language.
You can watch the striga videos here: http://www.accessagriculture.org/search/striga/all/
As local knowledge evolves, rural people must create new words for things, but may do so in surprising ways, as I saw this week while visiting Tiv-speaking farmers in Nigeria. The farmers told us that they were troubled by a white insect pest that lives in groups on the leaves of the cassava plant. The farmers told me the insectâs local name, which I wrote down phonetically: apolo, as in âah poloâ. We identified this as a mealybug and eventually realized that it is not apolo at all, but Apollo, the god of music, poetry and art. Thatâs a strange name for a soft-bodied insect that doesnât move.
The Apollo Space Program (1966-72) was a big story in Nigeria, just as in most of the rest of the world. Coincidentally, West Africa suffered an outbreak of conjunctivitis (pink eye) in 1969, and people started to call the affliction âApollo,â after the spacecraft.
The mealybug was then accidentally introduced to Africa from South America in the early 1970s and became a major pest.Â Farmers all over the continent were forced to start talking about the mealybug, and they needed a new word for it. Some Nigerians called the tiny mealybug Apollo, because the gregarious, white insects reminded people of the white or yellow discharge that forms a crust on the eyelashes of pink eye sufferers.
This is why the Tiv have named the mealybugs for a Greek god.
Linguists call this âsemantic extensionâ, where the meaning of one word is extended to include another concept.
By contrast, a word is âcoinedâ when it is created out of thin air. Coining a new word is easy to do, but for some strange reason is quite rare. The Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont coined the word âgasâ in the 1650s, and George Eastman coined the name of his camera company âKodakâ in 1888, simply because he thought that the K was a strong sound and that Kodak would be easy for speakers of different languages to pronounce. There are other examples of coining, such as Gremlin and Jaberwocky, often linked to fantasy, but creating new words out of thin air is less common when naming things in the real world.
Semantic extension, on the other hand, is much more common than coining. Naming a mealybug in Nigeria for a Greek god is simply an extreme, if cross-cultural example, where the insect is named after a disease (based on symptoms), which was named after the rockets (historical coincidence), which was named for a Greek god (out of boundless self-confidence). Semantic extension can go on forever, on the most tenuous connections, even leaping from one country to another.
Apparently other Nigerian ethnic groups (not just the Tiv) also call the mealy bug the Apollo: a name which (like Kodak) is easy to say and to remember.
Local names for pests and diseases may not always be entirely local. Usually, farmers are fairly prosaic when they label new pests, e.g. calling an introduced moth larva âyuraj khuruâ, meaning white insect in Bolivian Quechua, or naming new plant diseases âpocha rogâ (rot disease) in Bangladesh (Bentley et al. 2009). But sometimes, as with the Apollo, local people reach out to current events for a fresh name. For example, in Kenya farmers had named the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) âOsama Bin Ladenâ because it was so destructiveâthe insect could destroy a familyâs entire maize store (Mulira et al. 2011).
See our earlier blog story: Softly killing the mealy bug
Bentley, Jeffery W., E.R. Boa, P. Kelly, M. Harun-Ar-Rashid, A.K.M. Rahman, F. Kabeere & J. Herbas 2009 âEthnopathology: Local Knowledge of Plant Health Problems in Bangladesh, Uganda and Bolivia.â Plant Pathology 58(4):773-781.
Mulira, G., F. Lusweti, Macosore Lokwaleput, C. Mulusa, Khisa N. Wekulo, Kisaka Nicodemus, Kunikinah Justus, Wefwila Jotham, Dinah Wekesa, Esther Limo, and Mary Mwania 2011 âOsama Destroys Maize.â 13 Kenya Fact Sheets. Nairobi: CABI.
Acknowledgement. This story was written with Dr. Tess Madu, who is the real expert on Nigerian cassava farmers.
Last week Jeff wrote a short blog story on Ants in the kitchen. It brought back memories on how nearly 20 years ago I embarked on an exciting project in Vietnam involving ants in biological pest control. Even though various ants really can control pests, it can be challenging to convince farmers that the ants are not all bad.
When in the early 1990s the American-French scientist Marco Barzman interviewed fruit farmers in southern Vietnam about managing insect pests in citrus with the red weaver ants, he came to a remarkable finding.
While many farmers went through great efforts to encourage weaver ants in their orchards, a few said they would like scientists to reproduce the smell of the ants so they could spray the trees and keep the insect pests away. This would be easier than managing ant colonies and, crucially, avoid their bites.
What seemed odd at the time has since been shown to be a sophisticated observation by farmers. Scientific research has revealed that ants leave behind chemical markers that ward off other insects, who smell danger and retreat.
Women who pick and sell mangoes for a living in Benin, West Africa, prefer picking and buying fruits from orchards that have weaver ants because they know that trees are less likely to have fruit with âwhite wormsâ inside. These are the larvae of fruit flies, which can destroy entire crops.
After decades of heavy scientific investments on fruit fly pheromones (odours that attract insects of the same or closely related species), commercial products are now available on the market that attract and kill fruit flies.
Research on how ant odours can be used in repelling fruit flies and other insect pests is still in its infancy. Revealing the exact chemical compounds involved in the complex communication system between different insect species is a daunting task and dependent on uncertain funding.
It may take decades for such products to be developed, tested and sold. But farmers do not have the luxury to wait; they want to protect their crops now.
For the time being, the best option is to support extension efforts that help orchard farmers to appreciate weaver ants. We can build on local knowledge, as across Africa and Asia fruit growers and pickers have developed various strategies to avoid being bitten by the ants. Promoting weaver ants as biological pest control also has to convince farmers that the ants are their friends.
The series of training videos that we developed for CORAF in West Africa on fruit flies, contain two videos on weaver ants. The videos help farmers understand the economic importance of these ants, present scientific information on ant ecology, and share local knowledge on reducing ant nuisance.
Scientific names: Weaver ant: Oecophylla smaragdina (Asian species), Oecophylla longinoda (African species).
- Integrated approach against fruit flies
- Collecting fallen fruit against fruit flies
- Killing fruit flies with food baits
- Mass trapping of fruit flies
- Weaver ants against fruit flies
- Promoting weaver ants in your orchard
Barzman, M.S., Mills, N.J. and Cuc, N.T.T. 1996. Traditional knowledge and rationale for weaver ant husbandry in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Agriculture and Human Values 13(4), 2-9.
Van Mele, P., Cuc, N.T.T., Seguni, Z., Camara, K. And Offenberg, J. 2009. Multiple sources of local knowledge: A global review of ways to reduce nuisance from the beneficial weaver ant Oecophylla. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, 8, 5/6, 484-504. Read article âș
Other publications on weaver ants are downloadable from the Agro-Insight Resources.
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