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Cultivating pride in the Andes November 4th, 2018 by

Vea la versión en español a continuación

“When we first started working with these innovative farmers, they were embarrassed to list ‘farmer’ as their occupation on their national ID card.” María Quispe, head of a Bolivian NGO called Prosuco, reminded a large crowd of villagers and visitors in the village of Cutusuma, La Paz.

Last week yapuchiris from many communities along with the famers in Cutusuma were celebrating the launch of a new book about themselves, published by Prosuco, with Swiss support.

Swiss diplomats, local people and government officials took turns at the microphone to express their pride in the changes over the years. A national TV station, Channel 7, was recording the event while a professional broadcaster from Radio San Gabriel in El Alto moderated the event in Aymara, a native language of the High Andes.

Food was served as an aphtapi, an old buffet style that is making a comeback in Bolivia. Boiled native potatoes, chuño, broad beans and oca are wrapped in wool blankets, then spread out on the earth or on a table. Diners serve themselves. Most put the food in little plastic bags saved from their last trip to the shop. It’s an Andean lunch with attitude, and it saves on plastic plates.

There was also dancing to Andean flute music; the local High School marching band belted out the national anthem with confidence and enthusiasm.

The striking feature of the book launch was that no one seemed ashamed to be a farmer anymore. It had been a long trip. The book, printed on high quality paper and illustrated with professional photography, explained that in 2004, Prosuco had set out to train innovative farmers as extension agents. One of the first steps was to give these innovative farmers a name. They settled on “yapuchiri,” an Aymara word for “farmer.” Calling the new expert farmers “yapuchiris” was a way of saying that farming was an important job. During the next 14 years, yapuchiris were trained all over the Altiplano as well as the valleys of Chuquisaca. Seventy of them were certified as “Yapuchiri Community Facilitators” by the Vice-Ministry of Alternative Education (such an original and creative name for a branch of government).

The book explains how the yapuchiris and Prosuco tried new ideas on farms, adapting several organic fertilizers, such as bokashi and biol, to local conditions, along with mineral mixes and natural repellents. Non-chemical controls of Andean potato weevil were also adapted to local conditions.

The book has numerical data to show that the yapuchiris’ yields are higher than those of other farmers and higher than those achieved by farmers who received conventional agricultural training. This is important, as organic agriculture is often dismissed (famously by The Economist in 2016) as low yielding and incapable of feeding the World’s growing population.

Over the years, the yapuchiris developed the Pachagrama, a large chart for listing the yapuchiris’ weather forecast, while planning and documenting the year’s weather as it unfolds, day by day. We have discussed the Pachagrama in earlier blogs To see the future, and  Predicting the weather. The yapuchiris started the Pachagrama as a table with some drawings, then refined it over the years.

At first, some of the yapuchiris’ neighbors scoffed at the idea of farmers as extensionists, saying that they wanted a real agronomist to train them. But eventually the yapuchiris convinced the others and were able to work with up to 50% of the farmers in their own villages. As Mark Twain put it, “an expert is someone with a brief case who is 50 miles from home.”

In fact, it can be an advantage to offer advisory services “50 miles (70 km) from home”. Projects began hiring yapuchiris to teach other communities. The yapuchiris crisscrossed the Altiplano, promoting productive, organic agriculture to appreciative audiences.

It is foolish of anyone to denigrate the people who feed us and care for the land. Building pride in a profession takes time and creating a more productive, sustainable agriculture is only part of it. Twelve years of support and training were important to develop a cadre of self-confident yapuchiris. Events with music, speeches and a splendid lunch also help to display that confidence while books in an attractive format also help to show how the work evolved over the years.

The book

Quispe, María, Eleodoro Baldiviezo and Sonia Laura 2018 Yapuchiris: Un Legado para Afrontar los Impactos del Cambio Climático. La Paz: Prosuco, Cosude & Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation.

Blog stories about yapuchiris

Inspiration from Bangladesh to Bolivia

Farmers produce electronic content

Forty farmer innovations

Acknowledgement  

Thanks to María Quispe, Eleodoro Baldiviezo, Sonia Laura, Eric Boa and Paul Van Mele for their comments on an earlier version.

CULTIVANDO ORGULLO EN LOS ANDES

por Jeff Bentley, 4 de noviembre del 2018

“Cuando empezamos a trabajar con estos agricultores innovadores, les daba vergüenza poner ‘agricultor’ como su oficio en su carnet.” María Quispe, directora de una ONG boliviana llamada Prosuco, recordó a una gran multitud de campesinos y visitantes en la comunidad de Cutusuma, La Paz.

La semana pasada, Yapuchiris de diferentes comunidades junto con los agricultores de Cutusuma celebraron el lanzamiento de un nuevo libro sobre sí mismos, publicado por Prosuco, con el apoyo suizo. Los diplomáticos suizos, la población local y los funcionarios del gobierno se turnaron al micrófono para expresar su orgullo por los cambios a lo largo de los años. Una televisión nacional, Canal 7, grababa el evento mientras que una locutora profesional de Radio San Gabriel de El Alto moderaba el evento en aymara, un idioma nativo de los Andes Altos.

La comida fue servida como un aphtapi, un antiguo estilo de buffet que de nuevo se está poniendo de moda en Bolivia. Las papas nativas cocidas, el chuño, las habas y la oca son colocadas en aguayos de lana y se extienden sobre la tierra o sobre una mesa. Los comensales se sirven solos. La mayoría pone la comida en pequeñas bolsas de plástico guardadas de su última visita a la tienda. Es un almuerzo andino con actitud, y ahorra en platos de plástico.

También hubo baile con música de flauta andina; la banda del colegio local entonó el himno nacional con confianza y entusiasmo.

Al presentar el libro ya era claro que a nadie le apenaba ser agricultor. Había sido un largo viaje. El libro, impreso en papel de alta calidad e ilustrado con fotografías profesionales, explica que en 2004, Prosuco se había propuesto formar a agricultores innovadores como agentes de extensión agrícola. Uno de los primeros pasos fue poner un nombre a estos agricultores innovadores Ellos mismos eligieron “yapuchiri”, que es simplemente una palabra aymara que significa “agricultor”. Llamar a los nuevos expertos agricultores “yapuchiris” era una forma de decir que la agricultura era un oficio importante. Durante los siguientes 14 años, se formaron nuevos yapuchiris desde todo el Altiplano y hasta los valles de Chuquisaca. Setenta de ellos recibieron un certificado como “Yapuchiris Facilitadores Comunitarios” del Viceministerio de Educación Alternativa (un nombre tan original y creativo por una instancia gubernamental).

El libro explica cómo los yapuchiris y Prosuco probaron nuevas ideas en finca, adaptando los fertilizantes orgánicos, como el bokashi, los bioles, a las condiciones locales, junto con caldos minerales, y repelentes naturales. Los controles no químicos del gorgojo andino de la papa también se adaptaron a las condiciones locales.

El libro tiene datos numéricos para mostrar que los rendimientos de los yapuchiris son más altos que los de otros agricultores y más altos que los logrados por los agricultores que recibieron capacitación agrícola convencional. Esto es importante, ya que la agricultura orgánica es a menudo descartada (por ejemplo en un caso famoso por The Economist en 2016) como de bajo rendimiento e incapaz de alimentar a la creciente población mundial.

A lo largo de los años, los yapuchiris desarrollaron el Pachagrama, una ficha para sistematizar el pronóstico del tiempo de los yapuchiris, mientras planifican y documentan el tiempo del año a medida que se desarrolla, día a día. Hemos discutido el Pachagrama en blogs anteriores Conocer el futuro, y Prediciendo el clima. Los yapuchiris iniciaron el Pachagrama como un cuadro con algunos dibujos, luego lo refinaron con el paso de los años.

Al principio, algunos de los vecinos de los yapuchiris se burlaron de la idea de los agricultores como extensionistas, diciendo que querían que un ingeniero agrónomo los capacitara. Pero finalmente los yapuchiris convencieron a los demás y pudieron trabajar con hasta el 50% de los agricultores de sus propias comunidades. Como dijo Mark Twain, “un experto es alguien con un maletín que está a 50 millas de casa”.

De hecho, puede ser una ventaja ofrecer servicios de asesoramiento a “50 millas (70 km) de casa”. Los proyectos comenzaron a contratar yapuchiris para enseñar a otras comunidades. Los yapuchiris cruzaron el Altiplano, promoviendo la agricultura orgánica y productiva a audiencias apreciativas.

Es una tontería denigrar a la gente que nos alimenta y cuida de la tierra. Crear orgullo en una profesión lleva tiempo y crear una agricultura más productiva y sostenible es sólo una parte de la tarea. Doce años de apoyo y capacitación fueron importantes para desarrollar un grupo de yapuchiris seguros de sí mismos. Los eventos con música, discursos y un espléndido almuerzo también ayudan a mostrar esa confianza, mientras que los libros en un formato atractivo también ayudan a mostrar cómo ha evolucionado el trabajo a lo largo de los años.

El libro

Quispe, María, Eleodoro Baldiviezo y Sonia Laura 2018 Yapuchiris: Un Legado para Afrontar los Impactos del Cambio Climático. La Paz: Prosuco, Cosude & Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation.

Historias del blog sobre los yapuchiris

Inspiración Bangladesh a Bolivia

Agricultores producen contenido electrónico

Forty farmer innovations

Agradecimiento

Gracias a María Quispe, Eleodoro Baldiviezo, Sonia Laura, Eric Boa y Paul Van Mele por sus comentarios sobre una versión anterior.

Not sold in stores October 14th, 2018 by

I love supermarkets; whenever I visit a new country I think of the local supermarket as a kind of interactive food museum, with its own unique groceries on display.

But the supermarket also has a stranglehold on what we eat and grow, as I learned last week when I heard a talk by Lauren Chappell, a plant pathologist at the University of Oxford. Dr. Chappell explained that carrots come in white, pink and even purple varieties, in a rich diversity of sizes and shapes. We only think of the long, tapered orange varieties as the one and only true carrot because supermarkets will only buy varieties like Nairobi and Nantes, the stereotypical carrots. Some British chefs love the white and purple “heritage carrots,” but you won’t find them at the supermarket.

It’s the same with apples. Supermarkets only stock a handful of varieties, so that limits what even small-scale commercial farms can grow. On a recent visit to the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) gardens at Wisley, in southern England, I was delighted to see a whole orchard filled with 40 different kinds of apples. There was a large, bright pink variety, Rubinola, with a marvelous, spicy flavor, and a green Russet with a lumpy, almost toad-like skin, but an amazing, tart clean taste. These varieties, curated by the RHS, are rarely sold in stores, but keeping them alive is an important safeguard of our planet’s biodiversity. This rich gene pool is crucial for future efforts to breed fruit and vegetables that are adapted to tomorrow’s climate and to upcoming pests and diseases.

Preserving diverse food crops is also essential for a rich and varied diet. Gardens and small farms help to preserve our edible biodiversity.

Various institutions also encourage people to conserve genetic resources, for example by promoting farmers’ rights to seed, as we will see in next week’s blog story.

Other related blogs

Bolivian peanuts

From uniformity to diversity

Innovative processing (such as an apple juice factory on a truck) can help people to save time, and to maintain their orchards of local fruit trees (see The juice mobile).

Videos on farmer rights to seed

Farmers’ rights to seed: Malawi

Farmers’ rights to seed: Guatemala

To see the future October 7th, 2018 by

Vea la versión en español a continuación

When Francisco Condori stopped working as a bricklayer in La Paz, Bolivia, he returned as a 23-year old to his home village of Cutusuma, near Lake Titicaca. He felt that because of his years in the big city he was missing some agricultural knowhow. So he consulted with the older people of Cutusuma.

More than anything, the elders taught Francisco what are now called “the indicators” that is, the signs of nature that tell when to plant and if it will be a good year. This is indispensable information in a place like the Altiplano, generally good land for farming, but sometimes hostile.  Frost, hail and drought can destroy crops at any time. That is why forecasting the weather is a specialty on the Altiplano.

For example a bird, the quiri quiri, makes nests like little ovens in the totora reeds of Titicaca and the small lake of Cutusuma. The bird seems to know how high the water will rise. In dry years it builds its nest low, and in rainy years it makes a nest high on the totora plant. Francisco learned to take a raft into the lake and seek out the nests. The height of the nest in the dry season indicates the level that the water will reach in the rainy season.

Don Francisco also learned to look for the sank’ayu cactus. If it bears fruit early, one should plant potatoes early, in October. If it fruits late, one should plant in November.

Besides looking for his own indicators, Francisco also listened to the weather forecast on the radio and on the TV, but it wasn’t always reliable. He and his friend Antonio remember that once the radio announced that there was going to be a frost and the farmers should “take care of their potato crop.” Francisco and Antonio just laughed, because it was June—winter and the dry season—and nobody had potatoes in the field.

In 1998 Francisco met Edwin Yucra, an agronomist with an interest in climate and in local knowledge. Edwin worked in Prosuko, a project that was supporting the development of sukukollus (planting beds inspired by the agriculture of the ancient civilization of Tiwanaku).

Edwin collaborated for years with Francisco and Antonio and their neighbors. In recent years, Edwin taught them that there was a free app on the Internet that farmers could download to predict the weather with the help of satellites and weather stations. Many farmers have smart phones nowadays which give them access to apps like this one, called Weather Underground.

By 2017 Edwin, now a professor at the Public University of San Andrés, worked in seven communities, including Cutusuma. They managed to build a small weather station in Cutusuma to register the weather, including temperature, wind and rain.

Francisco and Antonio go over the data from the station constantly. They log onto Weather Underground every day on their cell phones. They still listen to the forecast on the radio and on TV and they still make their own forecast based on the indicators, which their write on their Pachagrama (see blog story Predicting the weather), so they can track the weather over the year.

Don Francisco and don Antonio are conducting a deep study of the weather. They combine local knowledge with modern science. Thanks to this, Francisco has become a sort of expert and celebrity. His neighbors frequently ask him what the weather will be like. When don Francisco goes to market in the town of Batallas, the people there recognize him and ask him about the weather. In recent years Francisco has appeared on several TV channels explaining the weather, the indicators and describing climate change.

It is an example of how one can respect local, even ancestral knowledge, while still appreciating modern science.

CONOCER EL FUTURO

Por Jeff Bentley, 7 de octubre del 2018

Cuando don Francisco Condori dejó de trabajar como albañil en La Paz, Bolivia, volvió a sus 23 años a su aldea natal de Cutusuma, cerca del Lago Titicaca. Sintió que debido a sus años en la gran ciudad le hacía falta saber de la agricultura. Así que se fue consultando con la gente mayor de Cutusuma.

Los ancianos más que nada le enseñaron a Francisco lo que se llaman los “indicadores” o sea los señales de la naturaleza que dicen cuándo sembrar y si va a ser un año bueno. Esa información es indispensable en un lugar como el Altiplano, tierra productiva para el agro, pero a veces también hostil.  Heladas, granizadas y sequías pueden destruir los cultivos en cualquier momento. Por eso el pronóstico del tiempo es una especializad en el Altiplano.

Por ejemplo, una pájaro, el quiri quiri, hace sus pequeños nidos como hornito en las totoras de Titicaca y de la pequeña Laguna de Cutusuma. El pájaro parece que sabe dónde llegará el agua. En años secos hace su nido bajo, y en años lluviosos hace su nido en la parte alta de la planta de totora. Francisco aprendió a entrar en balsa a la laguna y buscar los nidos. La altura del nido en la época seca indica el nivel que el agua llegará en la época lluviosa.

Don Francisco también aprendió a revisar el cactus sank’ayu. Si daba fruto temprano habría que sembrar la papa temprano, en octubre. Si daba su fruto tarde, habría que sembrar en noviembre.

Además de buscar sus propios indicadores, Francisco también miraba el pronóstico de tiempo en la radio, y en la tele, pero no era siempre confiable. El y su amigo Antonio recuerdan que una vez la radio anunció que iba a haber helada y que los agricultores deberían “cuidar su papa.” Francisco y Antonio solo se reían, porque era junio—invierno y época seca—y nadie tenía papa sembrada.

In 1998 Francisco conoció a Edwin Yucra, ingeniero agrónomo con interés en el clima y el conocimiento local. Edwin trabajaba en Prosuko, un proyecto que apoyaba en desarrollar a los sukukollus (camellones agrícolas, inspiradas por el agro del antiguo imperio de Tiwanaku).

Edwin colaboró durante años con Francisco y Antonio y sus vecinos. Edwin, en los últimos años, les enseñó que había una aplicación gratis en el Internet que los agricultores podrían bajar y pronosticar el tiempo en base a satélites y estaciones meteorológicas. Muchos agricultores tienen smart phones hoy en día que les da acceso a estas aplicaciones como este, llamado el Weather Underground.

Para el año 2017 Edwin, ahora catedrático en la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, trabajaba con siete comunidades, incluso Cutusuma. Lograron poner una pequeña estación meteorológica en Cutusuma para medir el tiempo, como la temperatura, viento y lluvia.

Francisco y Antonio revisan los datos de la estación constantemente. Chequean el Weather Underground cada día en sus celulares. Siguen escuchando el pronóstico en la radio y la tele y todavía hacen su propio pronóstico en base a los indicadores, lo cual apuntan en su Pachagrama (vea blog sobre Prediciendo el tiempo), para seguirlo durante el año.

Don Francisco y don Antonio están haciendo un estudio profundo del clima. Combinan el conocimiento local con la ciencia moderna. Gracias a eso Francisco se ha convertido en una especie de experto y celebridad. Sus vecinos frecuentemente le preguntan cómo va a ser el tiempo. Cuando don Francisco va al pueblo de Batallas para hacer mercado le reconocen los del pueblo y le preguntan sobre el tiempo. En los últimos años Francisco ha salido en la tele y en varios de los canales explicando el tiempo, los indicadores y que el clima está cambiando.

Es un ejemplo de que se puede respetar el conocimiento local y hasta ancestral, con amor a la ciencia moderna.

The smart phone generation September 30th, 2018 by

Vea la versión en español a continuación.

Colleagues from the Public University of San Andrés in La Paz have been teaching groups of farmers to use a free app called Weather Underground, which allows users to forecast the weather in their location. This week my colleagues wrote a fact sheet for farmers on how to use Weather Underground. I went with one of the agronomists, Alex Borda, to validate his fact sheet in the farm community of Choquenaira, on the Bolivian Altiplano.

Young farmers in Bolivia have smart phones, and like young people in the city, they use Facebook and other applications. So, farmers should be eager to download and use apps from the web to predict the weather, which is so important for agriculture.

First we met with Pascual Choque, 80, who was sitting with his friends in the shade of a large stack of bricks. Don Pascual was born at a time when many rural communities lived in the semi-slavery of the haciendas, large farms managed by powerful landlords. The Revolution of 1952 brought many social changes and new freedoms, including access to education and information. Don Pascual went to school, became a teacher and now, among other things, works in a radio station. He interviews agronomists and PhDs on his morning show, broadcast at five o’clock, when rural people are eating breakfast and listening to the news.

Don Pascual read the fact sheet. As a retired school teacher, he read out loud quite quickly, but he said that the only thing he understood from the fact sheet was that the climate is changing. “That is true,” he said, “the rains used to come at the same time each year. Not anymore.”

Alex read the fact sheet with some other farmers, but they also struggled to make sense of the text. It had unfamiliar terms like “click”, “select an option” and “close the app”. I started to feel frustrated, just like Alex. I have helped to validate many fact sheets and this was the first time that the people said that they understood almost nothing.

We kept walking until we reached a small station of the Agricultural School of the Public University of San Andrés. I was surprised find this outpost in the immensity of the Altiplano, with no houses nearby. The station was small—some llama corrals, tractors and sun burnt buildings and there were few people around. We managed to speak with some professors. As we were about to leave I saw two young women dressed in work clothes. They were agronomy students. “Let them read your fact sheet” I suggested to Alex. He came back pleased a few minutes later. The students liked his fact sheet and said that “there was nothing difficult to understand about it”. The youth understood his fact sheet. They have smart phones, and know how to discuss these magical pocket computers.

Today from the Andes to Africa one hears that the youth are leaving the countryside. To attract the ones who are staying, it will be necessary to try new digital options to help manage agricultural information. The older generation took advantage of the new technology of their times, like schools and radio. This generation is also looking for new information technologies, even some that support agriculture. I have little doubt they will be interested in a free way to predict the weather using their cell phones.

LA GENERACIÓN SMART PHONE

30 de septiembre del 2018, por Jeff Bentley

Compañeros de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés en La Paz han estado enseñando a grupos de agricultores a usar una aplicación gratis llamada el Weather Underground, que permite a los usuarios pronosticar el tiempo para su ubicación. Esta semana mis colegas han escrito una hoja volante sobre para agricultores sobre cómo usar el Weather Underground. Fui con uno de los ingenieros, Alex Borda, a validad su hoja volante en la comunidad campesina de Choquenaira, en el Altiplano de Bolivia.

Los jóvenes campesinos en Bolivia tienen smart phones, e igual que en la ciudad, usan Facebook y otras aplicaciones. Entonces, a los campesinos les debería gustar bajar y usar aplicaciones del web para pronosticar el tiempo, ya que la agricultura depende del clima.

Primero nos encontramos con Pascual Choque, de 80 años, sentado con sus amigos en la sombra de un gran bulto de ladrillos, para construir una nueva casa. Don Pascual nació cuando muchas comunidades rurales vivían en la semi-esclavitud de las haciendas, fincas grandes manejadas por poderosos terratenientes. La Revolución del 1952 trajo muchos cambios sociales, incluso el acceso a la educación y la información. Don Pascual asistió al colegio y llegó a ser docente y, entre otras cosas, trabajó en una radio.  El se entrevista con ingenieros y doctores en su programa por la mañana, a las 5, cuando la gente rural desayuna y escucha las noticias.

Don Pascual leyó la hoja volante. Como profesor jubilado lee muy bien y muy rápido en voz alta, pero dijo que lo único que entendió de la hoja volante era que el clima está cambiando. “Es cierto,” dijo, “antes las lluvias venían en su debido día. Ya no.”

Alex leyó su hoja volante con otras campesinas, pero tampoco entendían muy bien la hoja volante. Tenía vocabulario desconocido como “hacer clic”, “seleccionar una opción” y “cerrar la aplicación”. Yo empecé a frustrarme, junto con Alex. He acompañado a muchas hojas volantes y esa era la primera vez que la gente decía que no entendía casi nada.

Seguimos caminando hasta llegar a la pequeña estación de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Era para mí una enorme sorpresa ver la estación en la inmensidad del Altiplano, pero no había más casas. La estación era pequeña—unos corrales de llama, tractores y edificios tostados por el sol. Había poca gente. Logramos hablar con algunos profesores. Estábamos pot irnos cuando vi a dos jóvenes vestidas en ropa de trabajo. Eran estudiantes de agronomía. “Que ellas lean tu hoja volante” sugería a Alex. El volvió unos minutos después todo contento. A ellas les gustó la hoja volante y dijeron que “no tenía nada difícil de entender”. Las jóvenes entendían su hoja volante. Ellos tienen teléfonos inteligentes, y saben discutir esas computadoras de bolsillo.

Hoy en día desde los Andes hasta Africa se oye que todos los jóvenes quieren abandonar el campo. Para atraer a los que quieren quedarse, será necesario probar nuevas opciones de tecnología digital para manejar información agrícola. Sus abuelos aprovecharon de las nuevas opciones de sus tiempos, como el colegio y la radio. Esta generación también busca nuevas tecnologías de información, incluso para el apoyo del agro. Les debe interesar una forma gratis de pronosticar el clima con su celular.

The intricacies of mulching September 9th, 2018 by

Everybody working in agriculture knows something about mulching, which can lead us to think that we know all about it. But mulching is a surprisingly complex topic, as I recently realised while following a video from start to finish. For example, different crops may require different types of mulch, and some mulches are better avoided under certain conditions. As with other farming techniques, to make a video on mulch, manuals are often inadequate; one needs to rely on the experience of farmers.

We started preparing for the video on mulch during a workshop in Pune, India, in February 2017, where Jeff and I had trained a number of local partners to write fact sheets and video scripts for farmers (read an account on this workshop in: Nourishing a fertile imagination). One of the scripts was on mulch. When I revisit the first draft of that script it is striking how generic our early ideas were.

Among other things, the script mentioned: “Mulch allows more earthworms and other living things to grow by providing shade. The earthworms make the soil fertile and dig small tunnels that allow the water to go more easily into the soil.” That is all well and good, but that first script was a little light on how to go about mulching, although it had an idea of using dry straw.

More than a year (and 10 versions of the script) later, cameraman Atul Pagar from Pune, India, finished his video “Mulch for a better soil and crop”. For the past two years, Atul has been steadily producing quality farmer-to-farmer training videos, such as on the use of herbal medicine in animal health. Each of the videos is a testimony of the richness of local knowledge and practices.

For instance, the final version of the video mentions that fruits and vegetables like cauliflower, watermelon and others that grow close to the ground are best mulched with dry straw and sugarcane trash or other crop residue in between every row.

Commonly available wheat husks are not suitable for such crops, as Ravindra Thokal, one of the farmers featuring in the video, explains. “After harvest, we used to burn the crop residue. Now we do not burn it, but I use it as mulch in my cauliflowers. I do not mulch with wheat husks because they are easily washed away by rain. And when blown away by the wind, the husks can settle on the cauliflowers, which may damage them.”

In less than 12 minutes, the nicely crafted video also explains what to consider when mulching fruit trees, how to fertilise your mulched crop with liquid organic fertiliser, how to control rats that may hide in mulch, and what the pitfalls are of using plastic mulch. None of these ideas were in the first draft of the video script. The script had been improved over the intervening months by discussing the ideas with farmers and other experts. Although I had read quite a bit about mulching, a lot of the information in the video was new to me.

Farming is intricate. To produce good training videos for farmers requires people who have a keen eye, an open mind and the patience to learn from farmers. Atul has all of these. You can find his videos on the Access Agriculture video platform.

Related blogs

We have written many blog stories on soil fertility management, such as:

Inspiration from Bangladesh to Bolivia

What do earthworms want?

Nurturing ideas, and seed

Chemical attitude adjustment

The bokashi factory

Smelling is believing

The big mucuna

Crop with an attitude

Related videos

Mulch for a better soil and crop

Making a vermicompost bed

The wonder of earthworms

Reviving soils with mucuna

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