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Not sold in stores October 14th, 2018 by

I love supermarkets; whenever I visit a new country I think of the local supermarket as a kind of interactive food museum, with its own unique groceries on display.

But the supermarket also has a stranglehold on what we eat and grow, as I learned last week when I heard a talk by Lauren Chappell, a plant pathologist at the University of Oxford. Dr. Chappell explained that carrots come in white, pink and even purple varieties, in a rich diversity of sizes and shapes. We only think of the long, tapered orange varieties as the one and only true carrot because supermarkets will only buy varieties like Nairobi and Nantes, the stereotypical carrots. Some British chefs love the white and purple ‚Äúheritage carrots,‚ÄĚ but you won‚Äôt find them at the supermarket.

It’s the same with apples. Supermarkets only stock a handful of varieties, so that limits what even small-scale commercial farms can grow. On a recent visit to the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) gardens at Wisley, in southern England, I was delighted to see a whole orchard filled with 40 different kinds of apples. There was a large, bright pink variety, Rubinola, with a marvelous, spicy flavor, and a green Russet with a lumpy, almost toad-like skin, but an amazing, tart clean taste. These varieties, curated by the RHS, are rarely sold in stores, but keeping them alive is an important safeguard of our planet’s biodiversity. This rich gene pool is crucial for future efforts to breed fruit and vegetables that are adapted to tomorrow’s climate and to upcoming pests and diseases.

Preserving diverse food crops is also essential for a rich and varied diet. Gardens and small farms help to preserve our edible biodiversity.

Various institutions also encourage people to conserve genetic resources, for example by promoting farmers’ rights to seed, as we will see in next week’s blog story.

Other related blogs

Bolivian peanuts

From uniformity to diversity

Innovative processing (such as an apple juice factory on a truck) can help people to save time, and to maintain their orchards of local fruit trees (see The juice mobile).

Videos on farmer rights to seed

Farmers’ rights to seed: Malawi

Farmers’ rights to seed: Guatemala

Dick’s Ice Box September 2nd, 2018 by

In 2005, a few years before my Mom died, she took some of her grown children and grandchildren to Dewey, Utah, a ghost town on the Colorado River, to show us one of the strangest structures I’ve ever seen. On a blistering day in July we walked through the sage brush and the red sand to a canyon wall. Mom led us through a neat little door through the cliff-face into a darkened room, surprisingly cooler than the outside and big enough for a dozen people to crowd in.

Mom‚Äôs grandfather, Richard Dallin ‚ÄúDick‚ÄĚ Westwood had carved this room from solid stone. Dick‚Äôs children called the place ‚ÄėDad‚Äôs Ice Box.‚ÄĚ Dick would stack winter ice from the Colorado River into his ice box to keep food cold all through the summer. ‚ÄúThey could even keep butter in here,‚ÄĚ Mom added proudly. My great-grandfather lived from 1863 to 1929; there was no electricity in Dewey and household refrigerators were rare before 1927.

Off and on between 1901 and 1916 Dick ran the ferry at Dewey, where the wagon road from Moab, Utah to Grand Junction, Colorado crossed the Colorado River. The trip was a hundred miles (160 km), so travelers often spent the night at Dewey, where my great-grandmother Martha had a little boarding house and diner. The family had a small farm and some cattle that provided meat and other provisions. The ice box filled with food was important for Martha’s business.

That day in 2005, my Mom told us that Dick carved the ice box with dynamite. The rectangular doorway and the spacious room it led into were clearly the work of a craftsman. Carving stone with dynamite is a dangerous business, a good way to lose life or limb, and I always wondered how Dick knew what he was doing.

This remained a mystery until this year, when my cousin, Richard ‚ÄúRick‚ÄĚ Westwood wrote a book about our great-grandfather. It finally helped me make sense of Dick‚Äôs Ice Box.

Dick held many professions, from sheriff to muleskinner to Shakespearean actor, but until I read Rick‚Äôs book I never realized that Dick was also a miner. From childhood I knew that Dick had staked a mine claim, which he named ‚ÄúThe Silver Dick.‚ÄĚ I was aware that my great-grandfather had a sense of humor, but until I read Rick‚Äôs book I didn‚Äôt know that the Silver Dick was a working silver mine. Discovered in August 1908, it may have been the only one in Southeastern Utah. Dick worked the mine until 1909 when he filled a box car with valuable ore, enough to make his fortune. Sadly, this never happened, because the shipment was stolen by railroad workers en route to buyers. But Dick‚Äôs mine enriched him with the skill of working sandstone with dynamite.

The Ice Box may have been partly inspired by the root cellar, a small structure dug into the ground, topped off with a timber roof. Many families in Utah stored their food in root cellars. During their early years in Dewey, Dick and Martha‚Äôs root cellar burned down. Martha would later tell my grandmother how devastating it was to lose all their stored food. Dick took the loss stoically, saying: ‚ÄúOh we‚Äôll get us another sack of flour and another bag o‚Äô taters (potatoes) and we‚Äôll be as good off as ever.‚ÄĚ But losing the root cellar may have inspired Dick to think of a fire-proof place to store the household food. As luck would have it, Dick was well placed to get ice. Rick explains that in the early 1900s, the Colorado River used to freeze so hard in winter that Dick could drive his family over the river in a wagon drawn by a team of horses. The ferry was sited between two sharp bends in the river, near the modern-day Dewey Bridge. In the spring the ice would break with great force, and some big slabs would pile up on the bank, where they were relatively easy to collect.

In her history of ice, Elizabeth David observes the sunken ice houses made by Scandinavian farmers, but in the mid nineteenth to early twentieth century USA, ice houses were typically wooden barn-like structures, made and operated by professional ice mongers, not by smallholder farmers. Dick’s Ice Box is the only one I know of carved into a sandstone cliff.

The ice box was crucial for running a family business on a small, desert farm.

Farmers’ creativity is often stimulated by new ideas, as we often say in our weekly Agro-Insight blog. Those ideas can come from science or from a technology the farmer learned somewhere else, even by mining. Dick was flexible, tough and creative. He took misfortune in stride, and adapted, just like many of the farmers we still meet today.

Acknowledgement

I thank my cousin, Rick Westwood, for letting me read his book manuscript. Thanks also to Rick and to my brothers Brett and Scott Bentley for reading and commenting on an earlier version of this story. I gratefully acknowledge Eric Boa and Paul Van Mele who gave me thoughtful feedback on this story, as they always do.

Related blog story

The Ice Harvest

Further reading

Richard E. ‚ÄúRick‚ÄĚ Westwood is publishing his excellent biography, Sheriff Richard Dallin Westwood later in 2018.

See also:

Westwood, Richard E. 2010 Westwood Family History, Vol II. R. Westwood: Highland, Utah.

My great-grandmother, Martha Wilcox (1871 to 1962) wrote an autobiography, edited by her daughter, Grace Westwood Morse:

Autobiography of Martha Anna Wilcox Westwood Foy, privately printed in 1983.

And for the definitive story of ice boxes:

David, Elizabeth 1994 Harvest of the Cold Months: The Social History of Ice and Ices. London: Faber and Faber. 413 pp.

As the waters recede July 1st, 2018 by

Peasant farmers can be quick to seize an opportunity, and when the benefit is clearly high, farmers may skip the experimental stage and go straight to a new practice on a massive scale.

In the lower Gangetic Delta in southwest Bangladesh, people live just centimeters above sea level. Getting rid of excess water can make all the different between harvest and hunger.

In the 1960s, earthen embankments were built around certain large areas of land.

The newly dry land inside these dykes is called a polder. Successful farming in the polder depends on having large draining canals, snaking through the muddy land, to carry water to the river.

In 2000, the 10 km-long Amodkhali Canal silted up. So during the winter rainy season the water had nowhere to go. A vast area in the middle of Polder 2 became a seasonal lake. Villagers hung on, growing rice in the dry season. Many migrated for wage labour in the winter.

Then in May 2017, Blue Gold (a program implemented by the government of Bangladesh) began to re-excavate the Amodkhali Canal.  By July they had dug out 8.4 km. It was a big job. At 2.5 meters deep and 6 meters wide, thousands of cubic meters of mud had to be moved. Some was done by machinery and some by hand. Groups of women were organised into Labour Contracting Societies (LCS) to earn money doing the work.

Local people near the canal saw the work. Even those living far away heard about it, and when the rains came in July 2017, farmers could see with their own eyes that the rainwater was draining away.

Like a river, a drainage canal has a sort of watershed, called a catchment area. This canal drains a roughly tear-drop shaped area some four by six kilometres: a big place. The thousands of farmers in the area didn’t have to be begged or cajoled into planting rice: they just did it.

My colleagues and I met local farmer Nozrul Islam near the banks of the canal. He said that he was so happy with the canal. He has two hectares of land and when the water drained off, nobody told him to plant rice. He simply went to Khulna, a neighbouring district, and bought rice seed for all of his land. He hadn’t planted winter rice for over 16 years.

Nozrul’s experience was replicated all over the area. In the village of Koikhali, a group of women told us that they also planted winter (amon) rice last year.

There was no experimentation, no hesitation. People simply re-introduced a winter rice crop into their cropping system, which they had not grown for almost a generation. The total catchment area is 4326 ha. That first year they planted 2106 hectares of winter rice, and harvested 12,000 tons or rice. Much of this rice was sold on the national market.

Related blog

Robbing land from the sea

Related video

Floating vegetable gardens

Acknowledgement

The Amodkhali Canal was re-excavated by the Blue Gold Program in Bangladesh, supported by the Blue Gold Program, with funding from the Embassy of the Netherlands. I am indebted to Joynal Abedin, Shahadat Hossain, Md. Harun-ar-Rashid, Guy Jones, A. Salahuddin and many others for teaching me about polders on a recent trip to Bangladesh.

A healthier way to eat groundnuts June 3rd, 2018 by

Vea la versi√≥n en espa√Īol a continuaci√≥n

Rosario Cadima is an enterprising farmer who spends two days a week buying and selling potatoes at the fair in Colomi, Cochabamba. Juan Almanza, the talented extensionist we met in last week’s blog (Videos for added inspiration), had given her a DVD with a series of agricultural learning videos aimed at farmers like her. The DVD included seven videos in Spanish, Quechua and Aymara on caring for the soil. One of the videos was about peanuts (groundnuts), which like other legumes, fixes nitrogen for the soil. Rosario recently watched the DVD with her parents, grandfather and other family members. They watched all of the videos over three nights, and she recalled them vividly.

Juan was surprised when Rosario mentioned the video on groundnuts. ‚ÄúBut you don‚Äôt grow groundnuts here,‚ÄĚ he said.

‚ÄúNo, but we buy them and eat them,‚ÄĚ Rosario said. Then she explained that she and her family sometimes bought peanuts that had a thick mold on them; they would simply wipe it off and eat the apparently clean nuts.

‚ÄúSo did we,‚ÄĚ Juan admitted.

The mold is a fungus, and it releases a poison called aflatoxin into peanuts and other stored foods. The video showed all of this, and explained that people should bury moldy food, instead of eating it.

Rosario’s family is now careful to avoid eating moldy peanuts. Farmers are also consumers and a video can help them to make better food choices. Smallholder farmers don’t always have opportunities to learn about public health matters related to the food that they produce and eat. The farmer learning videos hosted on Access Agriculture are now carrying many more messages than we first imagined. And the videos are rich enough that viewers can interpret them to learn unexpected lessons.  As we have said in our earlier blog (Potato marmalade), eating is the last step in a process that usually starts with planting a seed, so it makes sense that videos for farmers can also benefit consumers.

Watch the video

The video Managing aflatoxins in groundnuts during drying and storage is available to watch or freely download in English, Spanish and a dozen other languages.

For more videos about preparing nutritious food, please see:

Enriching porridge, baby food

Tomato concentrate and juice

Making rennet

Making fresh cheese

Pure milk is good milk

Making a condiment from soya beans

Making soya cheese

COMER MAN√ć M√ĀS SANO

Por Jeff Bentley, 3 de junio del 2018

Rosario Cadima es una AGRICULTORA emprendedora que pasa dos d√≠as a la semana comprando y vendiendo papas en la feria de Colomi, Cochabamba. Juan Almanza, el extensionista talentoso que conocimos en el blog de la semana pasada (Videos para un poco m√°s de inspiraci√≥n), le hab√≠a dado un DVD con una serie de videos de aprendizaje agr√≠cola dirigidos a agricultores como ella. El DVD incluy√≥ siete videos en espa√Īol, quechua y aymara sobre el cuidado del suelo. Uno de los videos era sobre cacahuates (man√≠es), que al igual que otras leguminosas, fija nitr√≥geno para el suelo. Rosario recientemente vio el DVD con sus pap√°s, abuelo y otros miembros de la familia. Miraron todos los videos durante tres noches, y ella los record√≥ v√≠vidamente.

Juan se sorprendi√≥ cuando Rosario mencion√≥ el video sobre man√≠. “Pero aqu√≠ no se produce man√≠”, dijo.

“No, pero los compramos y los comemos”, dijo Rosario. Luego explic√≥ que ella y su familia a veces compraban man√≠es que ten√≠an un molde grueso; simplemente lo limpiaban y com√≠an los granos, que parec√≠an limpios.

“Nosotros tambi√©n”, admiti√≥ Juan.

El moho es un hongo y libera un veneno llamado aflatoxina en los maníes y otros alimentos almacenados. El video mostró todo esto, y explicó que las personas deben enterrar el maní con moho, en vez de comerlo.

La familia de Rosario ahora tiene cuidado de no comer man√≠es con moho. Los agricultores tambi√©n son consumidores y un video puede ayudarlos a tomar mejores decisiones para con su comida. Los peque√Īos agricultores no siempre tienen la oportunidad de aprender sobre asuntos de salud p√ļblica relacionados con los alimentos que producen y comen. Los videos de aprendizaje agr√≠cola ubicados en Access Agriculture ahora llevan muchos m√°s mensajes de lo que imagin√°bamos al inicio. Y los videos son lo suficientemente ricos como para que el p√ļblico pueda interpretarlos para aprender lecciones inesperadas. Como hemos dicho en nuestro blog anterior (Mermelada de papa), comer es el √ļltimo paso en un proceso que generalmente comienza con la siembra de una semilla, por lo que tiene sentido que los videos para agricultores tambi√©n puedan beneficiar a los consumidores.

Vea el video

El video El manejo de aflatoxinas en man√≠ est√° disponible para ver o bajar gratis en ingl√©s, espa√Īol y una docena de otros idiomas.

Para más videos sobre la preparación de comida nutritiva, favor de ver:

Enriching porridge, alimento para bebés

Tomato concentrate and juice

Making rennet

Making fresh cheese

Pure milk is good milk

Making a condiment from soya beans

Making soya cheese

Innovating in the homeland of lupins May 20th, 2018 by

Vea la versi√≥n en espa√Īol a continuaci√≥n

Rhimer Gonzales is an agronomist who has worked in Morochata, in the Bolivian Andes, for three years, introducing new, sweet varieties of lupin: the beans can be eaten directly without soaking them to remove the natural toxins. Rhimer has also been trying, without success, to encourage folks to grow lupins in rows, just like other crops.

Farmers have been growing lupins here for a long time. Wild lupins are common in the canyons of Morochata, an area close to the center of origin for this crop with the gorgeous flowers and edible beans. It seems unlikely that local farmers could learn new ways to grow lupins, yet the use of a farmer learning video has triggered innovations.

I accompanied Rhimer during a recent visit, when we met Serafina Córdoba. She was busy washing dishes under a tree in front of her house, hurrying to finish so she get her kids started on their homework. She explained that the family got a DVD on soil conservation at a meeting of the sindicato (local village organization). Afterwards she watched the videos again with her husband and children. She remembered several of the videos, especially one on lupins and another on earthworms.

When we asked if the family had done anything new after watching the videos, at first she demurred. She wasn‚Äôt sure if the changes they had made in selecting lupin seed were important enough. Before, they would just take a handful of seeds and plant them. After seeing the video she picked out the big, healthy seeds, and the family planted those. The crop is flowering in the field now and do√Īa Sefarina said it looks better than in previous years.

The family also noticed in the video that people planted in rows, in furrows made with oxen. So do√Īa Serafina and her husband Jorge planted a whole field with oxen. She was pleased that this was a fast way to plant‚ÄĒclearly saving time is important for busy families. Rhimer confirmed that planting with oxen was a major innovation. Before, people planted just one row of lupins around the field.

The video emphasized seed selection. But it also showed row planting with oxen, because that is a routine practice in Anzaldo, where most of the video was filmed. Lupins are a more important crop in Anzaldo than in Morochata, even though both municipalities are in Cochabamba.

The value of filming farmers at work is that other farmers watching the video can learn all sorts of unexpected things. Conventional practice in one area can be an interesting innovation for another.

Rhimer explained that he selected the lupin video to show in Morochata because he thought it would be convincing. He was pleased to learn about do√Īa Serafina‚Äôs experience, because the video succeeded in convincing her family to not only select seed, but also to plant in rows.

Each farmer responds to a video in his or her own way. Later we met don Dar√≠o, who had also seen the videos at the meeting at the sindicato, and had later watched the DVD again with his family. Then he planted a whole field of lupins in rows. Unlike do√Īa Serafina, who said that planting in rows was easier, don Dar√≠o said it was more work. But that‚Äôs because he planted a whole field by hand with a pick, on a canyon side. Don Dar√≠o planted his lupins in straight lines up the hillside, and parallel to the slope as well, forming a grid pattern.

Rhimer explained that this lupin was a new, sweet variety and the plants were smaller than those of the bitter lupin that was previously planted in Morochata, so farmer had planted the new, shorter variety too far apart. Rhimer was also frustrated that the farmers were not watering the lupin enough. ‚ÄúIrrigating it one more time would have done it good.‚ÄĚ There is plenty of water here. But folks are still not treating lupins like a major crop, worth irrigating.

Change takes time, even when a community has a good extensionist like Rhimer. I thought he was doing well, successfully encouraging people to plant a new variety, and with a little help from the lupin video, inducing people to select healthy seed and plant in lines. As farmers grow familiar with the new variety they might learn to plant it closer together and water it a bit more, especially if a market develops for it.

Rhimer was modest about his own contribution to changing farmer practices. I suggested that the farmers’ responses to the videos were closely related to his work in the community. But Rhimer said that even though he had shared ideas with people of Morochata for a long time, it was the video that finally convinced the farmers to try row planting and seed selection.

Rhimer’s hard earned standing with farmers meant they were receptive to new ideas. But the videos provided additional, concrete evidence that that the new practices actually worked.

Related blog stories

United women of Morochata

Crop with an attitude

Watch the video on lupins

Growing lupin without disease: Available in English, Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, and French

Acknowledgements

Our work in Bolivia is funded by the McKnight Foundation’s CCRP (Collaborative Crop Research Program). Rhimer Gonzales works for the Proinpa Foundation.

INNOVANDO EN LA CUNA DEL TARWI

Por Jeff Bentley, 20 de mayo del 2018

Rhimer Gonzales es un agr√≥nomo que ha trabajado en Morochata, en los Andes bolivianos, durante tres a√Īos, introduciendo nuevas variedades dulces de tarwi (tambi√©n conocido como lupino, chocho, y altramuz). Sus granos se pueden comer directamente sin remojarlos para eliminar las toxinas naturales. Rhimer tambi√©n ha intentado, sin √©xito, alentar a las personas a cultivar tarwi en hileras, al igual que otros cultivos.

Los agricultores han estado cultivando tarwi aqu√≠ durante mucho tiempo. Los tarwis silvestres son comunes en los ca√Īones de Morochata, un √°rea cercana al centro de origen de este cultivo, con hermosas flores y frijoles comestibles. Parece poco probable que se podr√≠a ense√Īar algo nuevo a agricultores con tanta experiencia con el tarwi, sin embargo, el uso de un video de aprendizaje ha desencadenado algunas innovaciones.

Acompa√Ī√© a Rhimer durante una visita reciente, cuando conocimos a Serafina C√≥rdoba. Estaba ocupada lavando los platos debajo de un √°rbol en frente de su casa, apurada a terminar para poder ayudar a sus hijos con sus tareas. Ella explic√≥ que la familia recibi√≥ un DVD sobre la conservaci√≥n del suelo en una reuni√≥n del sindicato (organizaci√≥n local del pueblo). Luego ella mir√≥ los videos nuevamente con su esposo e hijos. Ella record√≥ los videos, especialmente uno sobre tarwi y otro sobre lombrices.

Cuando le preguntamos si la familia hab√≠a hecho algo nuevo despu√©s de ver los videos, al principio ella se neg√≥. No estaba segura que los cambios que hab√≠an hecho en la selecci√≥n de semillas de lupino eran lo suficientemente importantes. Antes, simplemente tomaban un pu√Īado de semillas y las sembraban. Despu√©s de ver el video, ella seleccion√≥ las semillas grandes y saludables, y la familia las sembr√≥. Ahora el cultivo est√° en flor y do√Īa Sefarina dice que se ve mejor que en a√Īos anteriores.

La familia tambi√©n not√≥ en el video que la gente sembraba en hileras, en surcos hechos con bueyes. Entonces do√Īa Serafina y su esposo Jorge plantaron una parcela entera con bueyes. Estaba contenta de que era r√°pido sembrar as√≠; para una familia ocupada es imprescindible ahorrar tiempo. Rhimer confirm√≥ que sembrar con bueyes fue una gran innovaci√≥n. Antes, la gente sembraba solo una fila de tarwis alrededor de la parcela.

El video enfatizó la selección de semilla. Pero también mostró la siembra en surcos con bueyes, porque esa es una práctica convencional en Anzaldo, donde se filmó la mayor parte del video. El tarwi es más importante en Anzaldo que en Morochata, aunque ambos municipios están en Cochabamba.

El valor de filmar a los agricultores mientras trabajan es que otros agricultores que miran el video pueden aprender todo tipo de cosas inesperadas. La práctica convencional en una zona puede ser una innovación interesante para otra.

Rhimer explic√≥ que seleccion√≥ el video de tarwi para mostrar en Morochata porque pens√≥ que ser√≠a convincente. Le agrad√≥ conocer la experiencia de do√Īa Serafina, porque el video logr√≥ convencer a su familia no solo de seleccionar semillas, sino tambi√©n de plantar en filas.

Cada agricultor responde a un video a su manera. M√°s tarde nos encontramos con don Dar√≠o, quien tambi√©n hab√≠a visto los videos en la reuni√≥n en el sindicato, y luego hab√≠a visto el DVD otra vez con su familia. Luego plant√≥ una parcela entera de tarwi en fila. A diferencia de Do√Īa Serafina, quien dijo que plantar en hileras era m√°s f√°cil, don Dar√≠o dijo que era m√°s trabajo. Pero eso es porque sembr√≥ un campo entero a mano con una picota, en ladera del ca√Ī√≥n. Don Dar√≠o sembr√≥ su tarwi en l√≠nea recta hacia arriba, y de lado a lado, como cuadr√≠cula.

Rhimer explic√≥ que este tarwi era una variedad nueva y dulce y que las plantas eran m√°s peque√Īas que las del tarwi amargo que ya se conoc√≠a en Morochata, por lo que los agricultores hab√≠an sembrado la variedad nueva muy distanciada. Rhimer tambi√©n estaba frustrado porque los campesinos no estaban regando lo suficiente al lupino. “Regarlo una vez m√°s lo hubiera hecho bien”. Aqu√≠ hay mucha agua. Pero la gente todav√≠a no est√° tratando al tarwi como un cultivo importante, que vale la pena regar.

El cambio lleva tiempo, incluso cuando una comunidad tiene un buen extensionista como Rhimer. Yo admiraba su trabajo, animando la gente a sembrar una nueva variedad y con un poco de ayuda del video de tarwi, induciendo a los agricultores a seleccionar semilla y sembrar en línea. A medida que los agricultores se familiarizan con la nueva variedad, podrían aprender a sembrarla más cerca y regarla un poco más, especialmente si se desarrolla un mercado para el tarwi.

Rhimer modestamente atribuía mucho del cambio en prácticas a los videos. Sugerí que el cambio estaba estrechamente relacionado con su trabajo en la comunidad. Pero Rhimer dijo que aunque había compartido ideas con la gente de Morochata durante mucho tiempo, fue el video que finalmente convenció a los agricultores a probar la siembra en líneas y la selección de semilla.

Por su trabajo constante, Rhimer ha ganado la confianza de los agricultores para que reciban a las nuevas ideas. Pero los videos dieron evidencia adicional y concreta de que las nuevas pr√°cticas realmente funcionaran.

Historias previas del blog

Mujeres unidas de Morochata

Cultivo con car√°cter fuerte

Vea el video sobre tarwi

Producir tarwi sin enfermedad: Disponible en espa√Īol, ingl√©s, quechua, aymara, y franc√©s

Agradecimiento

Nuestro trabajo en Bolivia es auspiciado por el CCRP (Programa Colaborativo para la Investigación de los Cultivos) de la Fundación McKnight. Rhimer Gonzales trabaja para la Fundación Proinpa.

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