A plant has a personality and, like people and countries, some have stronger characters than others. Take the lupin bean (Lupinus mutabilis), for example. It is an oddly erect legume that forms a sort of cone shape, and its glorious flowers make the plant wildly popular with gardeners in many countries. In Bolivia it is called âtarwiâ, from Quechua, the language of the Incas.
While making a video in Bolivia, my colleagues and I asked doĂ±a Eleuteria in the village of Phinkina to tell us what she planted after harvesting tarwi. She surprised me by saying that sometimes she followed tarwi with potatoes. Thatâs astounding, because potatoes are such a demanding crop that Andean farmers often rest the soil for years before planting a field to potatoes. Otherwise the soil may be improved by adding tons of chicken manure. Bolivian farmers in the Andes donât buy manure for other crops, just the fussy and valuable potato.
I followed up by asking Reynaldo Herbas, from the village of Tijraska, if he had ever planted potatoes right after tarwi. âYes, and it does very well. Planting tarwi is like fallowing your soil, or like using chicken manure,â he explained.
Tarwi seeds are also rich in oils and proteins and doĂ±a Eleuteria regularly feeds lupin beans to her children. Like some other Bolivians doĂ±a Eleuteria make a nutritious snack by boiling the seeds, but itâs a lot of work. The grains need to be soaked in water for three days before boiling, then left in the running water of the river for several days to wash out the bitter alkaloids.
Agronomist Juan Vallejos from Proinpa (a research institute) confirmed that tarwi takes a lot of water to process. This is ironic, because tarwi is recommended for dry areas with impoverished soils. Sweet varieties without the bitter alkaloids do exist, but in Bolivia the search for these sweet lupins is only just starting.
While visiting doĂ±a Eleuteria to learn about processing seed, she showed us how to pick out the bad grains of tarwi, to ensure that the crop planted from them would be healthy. (The main disease is anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). We asked doĂ±a Eleuteria what she did with the diseased grains. We thought that she might say that she buried them to keep the disease from spreading. But no, she buries the discarded grains because raw lupin beans are toxic, whether they are healthy or diseased.
âI do bury them,â she explained, âbecause they are so bitter that if the chickens eat them they will die.â
Agronomist Vallejos explained that tarwi plants are so packed with alkaloids that sheep and cattle will not touch a crop growing in the field. However, the lupin plant is drought resistant and even withstands hail, which often mows down other food crops in the Andes. Local governments in Bolivia are starting to promote tarwi as a way of adapting to climate change.
A plant may have a complex personality, with sterling qualities as well as some tragic defects. Tarwi or lupin is in many ways a perfect crop: well-suited to the punishing climate of the High Andes while nutritious for people and good for the soil. The downside is that you need lots of water to process the beans and to leach out the poisons that can kill your unsuspecting chickens.
For this story in Cochabamba, Bolivia, I was fortunate enough to be accompanied by Paul Van Mele and Marcella Vrolijks of Agro-Insight and Juan Vallejos and Maura Lazarte and others from Proinpa. The visit was funded by the McKnight Foundation.
Calisaya, J.J., Â M. Lazarte, R. Oros, P. Mamani 2016 âDesarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones TecnolĂłgicas para Incrementar la Productividad de los Suelos AgrĂcolas en Regiones Andinas Deprimidas de Bolivia.â Read at the Community of Practice meeting, McKnight Foundation, Ibarra, Ecuador 11-16 July. See the paper here.
The farmer training video âGrowing a good lupine cropâ will be hosted on the Access Agriculture website shortly in English, Spanish, Quechua and Aymara.
CULTIVO CON CARĂCTER FUERTE
Por Jeff Bentley
29 de enero del 2017
Una planta tiene una personalidad, y como la gente y los paĂses, algunos tienen mĂĄs carĂĄcter que otros. Considere el lupino (Lupinus mutabilis), por ejemplo. Es una leguminosa que crece casi en forma de cono, y gracias a sus flores gloriosas la planta es querida por jardineros en muchos paĂses. En Bolivia se llama âtarwiâ, del quechua, el idioma de los Incas.
Mientas mis colegas y yo filmĂĄbamos un video en Bolivia, pedimos que doĂ±a Eleuteria en la comunidad de Phinquina nos contara quĂ© sembraba despuĂ©s de cosechar el tarwi. Ella nos sorprendiĂł cuando dijo que a veces sembraba papa despuĂ©s del tarwi. Es increĂble, porque las papas son tan exigentes que muchos agricultores andinos descansan el suelo durante aĂ±os antes de sembrar papas. Si no, el suelo tendrĂĄ que mejorarse agregando toneladas de gallinaza. Los agricultores en los Andes bolivianos no compran gallinaza para otros cultivos, solo la mimada y valiosa papa.
Luego le preguntĂ© a Reynaldo Herbas de la comunidad de Tijraska, si Ă©l jamĂĄs habĂa sembrado papas despuĂ©s del tarwi. âSĂ, y produce muy bien. El sembrar tarwi es como descansar sus suelo, o como usar gallinaza,â explicĂł.
Los granos de tarwi son ricos en aceites y proteĂnas y doĂ±a Eleuteria a menudo los da de comer a sus hijos. Igual que algunas otras bolivianas, doĂ±a Eleuteria hace una merienda nutritiva con los granos cocidos, pero cuesta mucho trabajo. Los granos tienen que remojarse en agua durante tres dĂas antes de cocerse, para despuĂ©s dejarlos en el chorro del rĂo durante varios dĂas mĂĄs para expulsar los amargos alcaloides.
El Ing. AgrĂłnomo Juan Vallejos de Proinpa (un instituto de investigaciĂłn) confirmĂł que el tarwi toma mucha agua para procesarse. Es irĂłnico, porque el tarwi se recomienda para zonas secas con suelos empobrecidos. Existen variedades dulces, sin los alcaloides amargos, pero en Bolivia reciĂ©n empieza la bĂșsqueda por esos lupinos dulces.
Cuando visitamos a doĂ±a Eleuteria para aprender cĂłmo ella procesa la semilla, nos mostrĂł cĂłmo quitar los granos malos de tarwi, para asegurarse que el cultivo que siembra serĂĄ sano. (La enfermedad principal es la antracnosis, causada por el hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Preguntamos a doĂ±a Eleuteria quĂ© hacĂa con los granos enfermos. PensĂĄbamos que dirĂa que los enterraba para que las enfermedades no se diseminaran. Pero no, ella entierra a los granos descartados porque los granos crudos de tarwi son tĂłxicos, bien sea sanos o enfermos.
El Ing. Vallejos explicĂł que las plantas de tarwi estĂĄn tan cargadas de alcaloides que las ovejas y vacas no tocan al cultivo en la parcela. Sin embargo, la planta de tarwi es resistente a la sequĂa y hasta aguanta a la granizada, que a menudo arrasa con otros cultivos en los Andes. Los gobiernos locales en Bolivia empiezan a promover el tarwi como una adaptaciĂłn al cambio climĂĄtico.
Una planta puede tener una personalidad compleja, con cualidades de oro igual que algunos defectos trĂĄgicos. El tarwi o lupino en muchas maneras en el cultivo perfecto: bien adaptado a los desafĂos del clima altoandino, mientras es nutritivo para la gente y bueno para el suelo. Su lado oscuro es que requiere de mucha agua para lavar los venenos que pueden matar a tus gallinas inocentes.
Para escribir este cuento en Cochabamba, Bolivia, tuve la buena suerte de estar acompaĂ±ado de Paul Van Mele y Marcella Vrolijks de Agro-Insight y Juan Vallejos y Maura Lazarte y otros de Proinpa. La visita se financiĂł por la McKnight Foundation.
Para leer mĂĄs
Calisaya, J.J., Â M. Lazarte, R. Oros, P. Mamani 2016 âDesarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones TecnolĂłgicas para Incrementar la Productividad de los Suelos AgrĂcolas en Regiones Andinas Deprimidas de Bolivia.â Trabajo presentado en la reuniĂłn de la Comunidad de PrĂĄctica, McKnight Foundation, Ibarra, Ecuador 11-16 de julio. Ver la presentaciĂłn aquĂ.
Para ver mĂĄs
El video educativo para agricultores âProducir tarwi sin enfermedadâ se colocarĂĄ pronto en el sitio web de Agriculture en inglĂ©s, espaĂ±ol, quechua y aymara.
About 10% of greenhouse emissions are from agriculture, especially from wet rice cultivation. Rice plants need a lot of nitrogen which is often provided as urea, a chemical fertilizer which is usually broadcast by hand into the irrigation water: this is easy, but wasteful. Some 60% of the nitrogen fertilizer is lost as it is transformed into gases and enters the atmosphere. Some nitrogen is washed away by irrigation water. A practical alternative known as âurea deep placementâ makes much better use of nitrogen.
Urea usually comes in round grains, the size of fine gravel. For deep placement, the small grains are pressed into larger, oval pellets, about the size of your thumbnail. The farmer pushes these âsuper granulesâ of urea into the soft soil, between four rice plants. This deep placement puts the urea underground, near the plantsâ roots, so less nitrogen escapes into the air and water. The rice crop yields more and the farmers save money because they only need to use half as much fertilizer.
The efficiency of urea deep placement was demonstrated by 1980. The practice has not been adopted more widely because of the lack of supply of the super granules, the additional labor required and the difficulty of correctly placing the super granules in the field. Â But by the early 2000s, urea deep placement re-emerged in parts of Asia. The manufacture of small briquetting machines meant that the super granules could be made at the village level, and has led to a dramatic increase in their use, e.g. in Bangladesh (Giller et al. 2004).
There are two types of innovations: some you can try alone and others need to be adopted by a network. A solitary person can plant a new crop variety, for example, but it takes many people to start using super granules. Â A manufacturer has to build the briquetting machines. A second manufacturer has to buy a briquetting machine, make the super granules and sell them. Extensionists have to teach farmers how to place the super granules in the rice field. Then the farmers have to use the super granules, and make the idea their own.
It is kind of a chicken and egg problem. Farmers can’t use the super granules until someone makes them. Nobody will make them if there are no customers.
A step in the right direction is to show farmers the value of the super granules. The IFDC (International Fertilizer Development Center) commissioned Agro-Insight to make a farmer learning video on how to use urea deep placement. The video was filmed in West Africa, but the concepts also apply to Asia or even Latin America.
Of the 80 million hectares of irrigated rice worldwide, two million are in Latin America and the Caribbean, where 800,000 smallholders make their livings growing rice: 59% of which is irrigated (i.e. appropriate for urea super granules). And the region has the most potential of any to expand irrigated rice production. Rice is a popular food; tropical Latin Americans eat an average of 37 kilos of milled rice every ear, equivalent to a generous portion of 1.3 cups of cooked rice per day. As incomes increase, Latin Americans eat (and import) more rice.
As Latin America and the Caribbean grow more rice, it will help to make better use of nitrogen. So the urea deep placement video was recently translated to Spanish (there was already a Portuguese version). The video is a start, as it can teach farmers and extensionists about the importance of using fertilizer more efficiently, so that farmers can start to demand super granules and encourage companies to make and stock them. Even without super granules, growers of any crop will harvest more and save money if they grasp the idea that urea goes further if it is buried in the soil. This innovation makes a small contribution towards solving the problem of global warming.
Bent, Elizabeth 2015 The ground exhales: reducing agricultureâs greenhouse gas emissions http://theconversation.com/the-ground-exhales-reducing-agricultures-greenhouse-gas-emissions-40795
Giller, Ken E., Phil Chalk, Achim Dobermann, Larry Hammond, Patrick Heffer, Jagdish K. Ladha, Phibion Nyamudeza, Luc Maene, Henry Ssali, and John Freney 2004 âEmerging Technologies to Increase the Efficiency of Use of Fertilizer Nitrogen,” pp. 35-51. In Arvin R. Mosier, J. Keith syers and John r. Freney (Eds.) Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle: Assessing the Impacts of Fertilizer Use in Food Production and the Environment. Washington: Island Press.
Pulver, Eduard 2010 âManejo EstratĂ©gico y ProducciĂłn Competetiva del Arroz bajo Riego en AmĂ©rica Latina,â pp. 350-362. In VĂctor Degiovanni B., CĂ©sar P. MartĂnez R., & Francisco Motta O. ProducciĂłn Eco-Eficiente del Arroz en AmĂ©rica Latina. Volume 1. Cali, Colombia: CIAT. http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/2010_Degiovanni-Produccion_eco-eficiente_del_arroz.pdf
Savant, N. K. and P. J. Stangel 1990 âDeep Placement of Urea Supergranules in Transplanted Rice: Principles and Practices.â Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 25(1):1-83
A good video, one that lets farmers tell about their innovations, can spark the viewersâ imagination. A video can even convince smallholders to try a new crop.
Mpinda grows vegetables, and sells them in the market in Mwanza. In 2013, he was able to use his earnings to buy a small, gasoline-powered pump to water his beans, onions and tomatoes. A $100 pump is a major investment for a Malawian smallholder, but also a great way to save time and avoid the backbreaking labor of carrying water from the well to the plants during the long, hot dry season.
In June 2015, Ronald Kondwani Udedi left some DVDs with videos at a government telecentre managed by Mathews Kabira, near Mwanza, Malawi. The DVDs had learning videos for farmers about growing rice and chilli peppers and managing striga, the parasitic weed.
Mathews took one set of DVDs to Mpinda, because he was âa successful farmer. Mpinda had a DVD player, but no TV, so he watched the videos on chilli growing at a neighborâs house, using the neighbors TV and Mpindaâs DVD player. He watched the videos as often as the neighbor would let him. The more he watched, the more he learned.
Mpinda soon recognized the possibilities of chilli as a crop, even though he had never grown it.
To start a new crop you need more than a bright idea; you need seed. Getting chilli seed took some imagination. Mpinda went to the market and bought 20 small fresh chillies for 100 Kwacha (14 cents) and then dried them, like tomatoes, and planted the little seeds in a nursery, just like he had seen in the video. Mpinda had already been used to making seedbeds for onions and some of his other vegetables. At 21 days he transplanted the chilli seedlings, as he had seen on the videos.
Every few days Mpinda harvests three or four kilos of chillies and takes them to the market and sells them for 1000 kwacha a kilo ($1.40).
Mpinda has already planned his next step. After harvesting his little patch of eggplant, he is going to clear the land and plant a whole garden of chilli.
Mpinda has also watched the DVD of rice videos, and although no one in the area grows rice, he realizes that the crop would do well in the slightly higher space, just above his rows of vegetables. He has already looked for rice seed: there is none to be found in Mwanza and the agro-dealers wonât or canât order it for him, so he is going to travel to the city of Zomba, 135 km away, and buy rice seed there. Mpinda has already identified the major rice varieties grown in Malawi and decided that one of them, Apasa, is the best for highland areas like his.
He is going to plant rice in October, possibly becoming the first rice farmer in Mwanza district.
Mpinda didnât watch the rice and chilli videos as part of a farmer group. He didnât have an extensionist to answer questions. He simply had the videos which he could (and did) watch several times to study the content. And this information alone was enough to inspire him to experiment with two crops that were entirely new to him.
You can watch the chilli videos in English here: http://www.accessagriculture.org/search/chilli/all/
And in Chichewa here: http://www.accessagriculture.org/search/chilli/ny/
You can watch the rice videos in English here: http://www.accessagriculture.org/search/rice/en/
And in Chichewa here: http://www.accessagriculture.org/search/rice/ny/
These videos and others are also available in other languages at www.accessagriculture.org
Fred, the driver, keeps on changing gears as we wind our way up and down the hills of southwestern Uganda. The landscape is stunning and when we reach Kisoro just before sunset I realize we are just 10 kilometers from the border with DR Congo and Rwanda. The last orange light gives our eyes a last treat, a view of one of the majestic volcanoes with its head in the clouds. We are now nearly 2000 meters above sea level and the weather is cool. The rich volcanic soils have made this part of the country a major bean and potato growing area, supplying not only the people in the capital city, Kampala, but also in the neighbouring countries.
With land having become a scarce commodity, it is frightening to see how even the steepest slopes are under cultivation. And farmers have shifted en masse from growing bush beans to growing climbing beans. Five kilogram of bush bean seed gives farmers a harvest of about 100 kilograms, but the same amount of climbing bean seed easily yields 250 kilograms. The abundant leaves of climbing beans and the nitrogen they fix also helps to keep the soil fertile. No wonder that farmers have welcomed with open arms the climbing beans that CIAT and NARO introduced. (In 1984, the first improved climbing bean varieties from CIAT were officially released and promoted in Rwanda and then gradually into neighbouring countries).
But unlike bush beans, the climbing beans require stakes, which in a highly deforested part of the country are hard to come by and expensive. And as necessity is the mother of invention, it came as no surprise that farmers have developed a range of solutions.
Some farmers started planting eucalyptus trees on the tops of the hills. Others keep native trees such as Vernonia in their garden and regularly cut 2 or 3 meter-long branches from them, to use themselves or sell to their neighbours. The most popular local tree also provides fodder and medicine, among other things. As we visit various womenâs groups to prepare for a series of farmer-to-farmer training videos, Felisten Nwemkuye from the Nyarrubuye women’s grain producersâ group in Kisoro tells us that they can keep their sticks for up to four years:
âAfter we harvest the beans, we bundle the stakes and turn them upside down so that the parts that were in the soil face upwards and can dry in the sun and get hard again. We also put them upright on some higher ground on some rocks so that when it rains the water easily runs off and the wood does not rot.â
âAs stakes are so expensive wonât other people steal them if you leave them in the field?â asks Isaac Mugaga from NARO. He has been working with growers of climbing beans for over a decade.
âNo, everyone in the community respects each other and in case stakes are stolen the thief is caught and brought to the local court. He will then be forced to repay the stakes,â replies Felisten.
People are sent to court for stealing stakes and for cutting branches of trees without permission. That is how serious people take their stakes.
The next day we visit the dynamic womenâs group of Rwaramba. Here farmers rotate their bean with maize. But instead of harvesting the entire maize plant, they just harvest the cobs and leave the maize stalks standing. When farmers plant their climbing beans the following season, these stalks serve as stakes. As we continue visiting other villages, we learn that some farmers grow elephant grass on the terraced steep slopes of the mountains. They feed its leaves to their cattle, and keep the strongest stalks for staking.
Managing natural resources is an art and farmers, once more, have impressed me with their creativity.
NARO is the National Agricultural Research Organisation of Uganda. CIAT is the International Center for Tropical Agriculture.
Watch the upcoming video made with CIAT on Staking climbing beans.
Emma had it all, including an award-wining advertising career in Nairobi, when she decided that she was tired of the rat race and wanted to spend more time out of doors. So she took some training in business management and in dairy, and since 2002 she has been driving out to the village some 50 km from Nairobi where her family had 10 acres of land, some cows and a barn.
Emma loves the cows and the dairying, but the low milk prices frustrate her, so she has a shop in a nearby town where she sells her own milk and her hand-crafted, bio-active yoghurt. She also sells dairy calves to other farmers.
Seven full-time workers on the farm tend the cows and raise the fodder: napier grass, some alfalfa and some maize under drip irrigation. The only problem is that thirsty antelopes come to eat the hoses, to get out the water.
Emma warmed up milk for us to drink, rather than tea. She hasnât lost the advertiserâs touch; sheâs always promoting milk. She gave us the smoothest explanations of how to make yoghurt, even while being interrupted to talk to suppliers and customers on the phone. Emma is articulate and friendly, an easy woman to like and to respect, so I wish I could end the story here, about how a clever, educated woman loved farming enough to make it a business.
But thereâs another side to it. Emma lives in the city and commutes to the farm. If sheâs sick or has something come up, she might not make it to the farm for a few days.
Her workers avoided our gaze. It wasnât clear what they were doing, but they werenât working very hard. There was clean, running water on the farm, but the workers had not bothered to wash the manure out of the barn or fill the watering troughs for the thirsty cows. The fodder had been allowed to get wet and was spoiling in the feeding troughs. The cows were caked in dung. One cow lay in the muck, panting with a fever.
Compare this to another farm we had seen, also run by Peris, a mature woman in the same part of the highlands. Peris also relied on hired workers for much of the physical labor, but her employees were busy sweeping the barn, and smiled when we caught their eye. The young men swept the dung onto the compost pit as they washed the floor. Each cow had a comfortable rubber pad to stand on. There were no flies and little smell. Â Peris had a model cow barn.
The difference is that one of these dairy farmers lives right on her farm. Perisâs back door opens onto the cow barn. When sheâs working with her cows she can see her kitchen window, and she sees her kids when they walk home from school. By always being on the farm, Peris can keep an eye on her herd and quickly set any mishaps right.
One of these remarkable ladies is farming like a business, but the other is farming like a family, and that makes a difference.