One of the most common questions about farmer training videos is how farmers will watch them if they donât have electricity to run a projector, or own a laptop. As mobile communications improve, however, new ways are emerging that are making it easier for farmers to download, view and share videos.
This week, at a workshop in Tamil Nadu, southern India, my colleague Jeff and I were teaching local partners to validate fact sheets on major crop pests and diseases with farmers. We all learned a lot from farmers who read first drafts, and commented on their content. The fact sheets than served as basis on which partners developed scripts for training videos. Before leaving the village I was again reminded that farmers no longer need expensive hardware (such as a computer or TV and DVD player) to watch videos.
Technology has evolved swiftly and influenced lives in rural areas in ways that were hard to imagine a decade ago. Over the past decade mobile phone companies in developing countries have been offering financial services that are just beginning to see the light in Western countries.
The boom in mobile phone use has triggered new types of service providers. Teenagers in Nigeria and many other African countries now tap power from solar panels to charge the mobile phones of rural folks coming to the weekly market.
Last year, GĂ©rard Zoundji (from the University of Abomey-Calavi) sent me photographs of a farmer in southern Benin who had watched farmer training videos about vegetables on his mobile phone. Someone had bought a DVD at the local agro-input shop and converted the videos from the DVD into 3gp format to watch on his mobile. Farmers are now able to watch videos even without DVD players.
This week in India I saw farmers go one step further, and download videos. Kannappan, one of the trainees from the local NGO MSSRF, was chatting with some of the village farmers when one of them, Ramesh Permal, mentioned he was rearing fish in a pond. ICT-savvy Kannappan took out his mobile phone, connected to the Access Agriculture website, and searched among all Tamil videos, and found one on raising fingerlings. It took him less than 3 minutes to download the video to his mobile. Mr. Permal and another farmer then took out their smart phones, and swiftly connected to Kannappanâs mobile . The video file was nearly 50 Mb, but they transferred it to their mobile in just over 10 seconds using the SHAREit app. For ease of downloading to mobile phones when there is not a very good internet connection, Access Agriculture has also made all videos in its library available in 3gp format, which is about half the size.
After having said goodbye to the farmers, one of them saw the Access Agriculture website address (www.accessagriculture.org) on the back of my t-shirt and asked if he could take a photograph of it (with his phone). He would use the address to download more quality training videos in his own language.
Farmers may not have computers, but they are starting to get smart phones. Some smallholders rely on extensionists to get electronic information, but others are starting to use their phones to access information on their own, directly from the internet.
We are grateful to the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) and the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Farmer Science Centre) for helping to organise the workshop and field visits.
Related blog stories:
In most countries, men and women have different styles of speaking. But is it possible for a community to have two completely different languages, one for men and one for women, not just for one generation, but sustained for a long time?
If such diglossia (a dual language system) is possible, imagine the decisions one would have to make while engaging with such a community. Makers of educational videos might have to make two soundtracks for a single community. An agricultural extensionist would have to choose which language to use for a talk.
As strange as it may seem, at least one society did come close to having two, gender-based languages, which were spoken over several generations. Â In the 17th century, the people of the Caribbean Island of Dominica told a story that they said took place some generations before the coming of the Europeans, when the islands of the Lesser Antilles had been inhabited by people who spoke an Arawak language. Then the islands were attacked by canoe-loads of men who spoke a Carib language. The invaders killed the local men, and then settled down with the women.
The two languages were extremely different, but the children born after the invasion grew up speaking both of them. All children learned the Arawak language of their mothers, but when the boys became teenagers they started spending more time with the men, and began to speak Carib among themselves. The Islanders developed a version of Carib that became a language for men only.
In 1665, Father Raymond Breton, a French missionary, published a two-volume dictionary of the language then spoken on the islands of Dominica and St. Vincent. The dictionary specified whether each word was used by men, or by women.
Various scholars have questioned the historical accuracy of the Carib invasion story. It is possible that the menâs language originated through trade or migration. Â We will never know if Carib men of the 13th century once rampaged across the island beaches, murdering Arawak men and capturing women. There is no historical or archaeological evidence for (or against) this story. Yet the linguistic data are well documented. There is no doubt that in the 1650s, over much of the Lesser Antilles, men and women spoke in two remarkably different codes. The two genders used the same sounds, and most of the same grammar, but menâs words were from Carib, and womenâs words were from Arawak. (The men could speak the womenâs language, and would speak it when socializing with women. The menâs language was only used between men).
If you could time travel to the Island of Dominica in the 17th century, and were able to speak the full range of menâs and womenâs languages, a talk with the whole community would sooner or later switch to the womenâs language, because it was everyoneâs first tongue.
In agricultural extension today, sometimes it helps to create a space where women can easily speak up, so that their concerns can be addressed. It is easy to start to think that men and women are very different, but it is also worth remembering that in some ways we are the same, and that language can unite us.
Allaire, Louis 1980 âOn the Historicity of Carib Migrations in the Lesser Antilles.â American Antiquity 45(2):238-245.
Boucher, Philip P. 2009 Cannibal Encounters: Europeans and Island Caribs, 1492â1763. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Davis, Dave D. and R. Christopher Goodwin 1990 âIsland Carib Origins: Evidence and Nonevidence.â American Antiquity 55(1):37-48.
Taylor, Douglas 1954 âDiachronic Note on the Carib Contribution to Island Carib.â International Journal of American Linguistics 20(1):28-33.
Taylor, Douglas R. and Berend J. Hoff 1980 âThe Linguistic Repertory of the Island-Carib in the Seventeenth Century: The Men’s Language: A Carib Pidgin?â Â International Journal of American Linguistics 46(4):301-312.
Watch a video on women in agricultural extension, here.
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn.
Smallholder farmers get most of their new ideas from other farmers, that is, from friends, neighbors and relatives. The farmersâ friends usually live nearby. But other than convenience, the friends are valued because they are trusted. What works for my friends might work for me.
We saw a new twist on this a couple of months ago in Malawi when Ronald Kondwani Udedi and I were interviewing farmers who had watched learning videos distributed by DJs: young entrepreneurs who sell entertainment videos.
Most of the videos had been made elsewhere (not in Malawi). The videos, on rice, striga (the parasitic weed), and chilli had then been narrated in some of the local languages (Chichewa, Senna and Yao). When we spoke with smallholders in Malawi, they often called the farmers in the videos their âfriendsâ, as we heard from Fadwick Matolo, in Ulolo village, near Phalombe. See blog here. The videos themselves do not say that the farmers are âfriends,â and the Malawian farmers had received the videos coldâso to speakâwith no extensionist to suggest that the folks on the screen were âfriends.â The Malawian farmers themselves had decided (each one independently of other farmers) that the people on the screen were their friends. At first I found this puzzling.
For example, Hope Mazungwi, in Stolo Village, near Mulanje, took the videos to a âvideo showâ (like a village cinema) where the owner let him play some of the videos. Hope recalls âWe saw that our friends are doing amazing things. The rice has big eyes.â Hopeâs friends, in this case, were farmers that he had never met, in faraway Mali.
Esme Stena, near Chombe, watched the videos at a friendâs house and later told us âOur friends in the video, they keep rice seed in a clay pot. Does that mean that we should also keep our rice seed in a clay pot?â In this case, Esmeâs âfriendsâ were women farmers in Bangladesh.
I had earlier noticed that farmers in Uganda referred to the smallholders on the screen as âour brothers and sisters.â
The farmer learning videos are filmed with farmers in various countries, but are made to be shown all over the world. After all, tropical smallholders are already watching entertainment movies from foreign countries; they can just as easily watch learning videos from elsewhere. These learning videos are well-made, capturing the viewersâ attention with music, engaging interviews, beautiful photography, and relevant topics. The videos feature relaxed farmers, speaking from the heart about practical ideas that really work. They are honest farmers, who are not acting, and they gain the trust of the audience. With trust comes friendship.
You can listen to another Malawian farmer, Mr. Mpinda, tell how he adopted a new crop, after learning about it from his âfriendsâ on the chilli videos here.
You can watch all of the farmer learning videos, in many languages at www.accessagriculture.org.
You can read âMalawi DJs distribute videos to farmers,â here.
And âThe mud on their legs,â about farmersâ reaction to learning videos in Uganda, here.
11 de diciembre del 2016, por Jeff Bentley
Los campesinos sacan la mayorĂa de sus nuevas ideas de otros agricultores, o sea, de sus amigos, vecinos y parientes. Los amigos de los agricultores normalmente viven cerca. Pero mĂĄs allĂĄ de la cercanĂa, los amigos son apreciados por la confianza. Lo que funciona para mis amigos podrĂa funcionar para mĂ.
Vimos otra faceta de esto hace un par de meses en Malawi cuando Ronald Kondwani Udedi y yo nos entrevistĂĄbamos con agricultores que habĂan visto los videos didĂĄcticos distribuidos por los DJs: jĂłvenes empresarios que venden pelĂculas en video.
La mayorĂa de los videos habĂan sido hechos en otro lado (no en Malawi). Los videos, sobre el arroz, la striga (la maleza parasĂtica), y el chile habĂan sido narrados en algunos de los idiomas locales (Chichewa, Senna y Yao). Cuando hablamos con los campesinos en Malawi, a menudo decĂan que los agricultores en los videos eran sus âamigosâ, como escuchamos de Fadwick Matolo, en la aldea de Ulolo, cerca de Phalombe. Vea el blog aquĂ. Los mismos videos no dicen que los agricultores son âamigos,â y los campesinos de Malawi recibieron los videos sin facilitaciĂłn, sin extensionistas o alguien que sugiriera que las personas en la pantalla eran âamigos.â Eran los agricultores en Malawi quienes habĂan decidido (cada uno independientemente de los otros campesinos) que las mujeres y hombres en la pantalla eran sus amigos. Al principio me pareciĂł extraĂ±o.
Por ejemplo, Hope Mazungwi, en la aldea de Stolo, cerca de Mulanje, llevĂł los videos a un âvideo showâ (como un cine rural) donde el dueĂ±o le permitiĂł mostrar algunos de los videos. Hope se acuerda que âVimos que nuestros amigos hacen cosas increĂbles. Su arroz tiene granos grandes.â Los amigos de Hope, en este caso, eran agricultores que Ă©l ni conocĂa, en el lejano MalĂ.
Esme Stena, cerca de Chombe, vio los videos en la casa de una vecina, y luego nos contĂł âNuestras amigas en el video guardan su semilla de arroz en una olla de barro. ÂżEso significa que nosotras tambiĂ©n deberĂamos guardar nuestra semilla de arroz en una olla de barro?â En este caso, las âamigasâ de Esme eran campesinas en Bangladesh.
Antes, me llamĂł la atenciĂłn que los agricultores en Uganda llamaban a los campesinos en la pantalla ânuestros hermanos y hermanas.â
Los videos didĂĄcticos para campesinos se filman con agricultores en varios paĂses, pero se los hacen para mostrar en todo el mundo. La verdad, los campesinos en los trĂłpicos ya ven pelĂculas de otros paĂses; bien pueden ver videos educativos de otros lugares. Estos videos educativos estĂĄn bien hechos; capturan la atenciĂłn del pĂșblico con mĂșsica, entrevistas reales, linda fotografĂa y temas relevantes. Los videos muestran agricultores relajados, hablando sinceramente sobre ideas prĂĄcticas que les han funcionado. Son agricultores reales, no actores y ganan la confianza del pĂșblico. Con la confianza viene la amistad.
Para ver mĂĄs
Usted puede a otro agricultor en Malawi, el Sr. Mpinda, quien nos cuenta cĂłmo adoptĂł un nuevo cultivo, despuĂ©s de escucharlo de sus âamigosâ en los videos sobre el chile aquĂ.
Se puede ver todos los videos agrĂcolas didĂĄcticos, en muchos idiomas en www.accessagriculture.org.
Para leer mĂĄs
Se puede leer âMalawi DJs distribute videos to farmers,â aquĂ.
Y âThe mud on their legs,â sobre la reacciĂłn de los agricultores a los videos didĂĄcticos en Uganda, aquĂ.
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn.
Social media can be used to help manage a natural resource, as we saw recently in Bolivia. Every year, in Cochabamba, the municipal government puts up Christmas decorations, including strings of lights wrapped around trees. But no one bothers to take the lights down. A few still flicker from time to time, almost a year after being hammered onto the tree. The iron in the nails is toxic for the trees, and the nail holes are wounds that allow disease to enter. The workers climbing up and down the trees also damage some of them.
Cochabamba has a group opposed to cutting trees (No a la Tala de Ărboles en Cochabamba). The group plants trees, holds meetings and raises public awareness through information. Members of the group began to notice these trash ornaments, and they knew that the wires and nails were bad for tree health. The city had already lost too many trees to construction, drought and disease (especially a phytoplasma on the China berry treeâMelia azedarach). Some members of âNo a la Talaâ posted photos of the dangling lights and brief notes on the groupâs Facebook page.
Local groups can be quite large. This one has 13,025 âfriendsâ, and they responded immediately. They coined a slogan, âput more lights in your brains, and fewer in our trees.â The newspaper and local bloggers began to run stories suggesting that old ornaments be cleaned up, and that new ones be more carefully done, and not placed in living trees. The city is slowly beginning to take action, removing some of the old strings of lights, and there is growing public concern that the ornaments can harm trees.
City trees are shared by many people, like any common property resource, such as the sea, or irrigation water, or grazing land. As the ecologist Garret Hardin noticed years ago in his paper âThe Tragedy of the Commons,â (1968) a common resource is hard to manage when so many people use it. However, today social media can help communities to notice problems, and to organize themselves to create solutions.
4 de diciembre del 2016, por Jeff Bentley
Los medios sociales se pueden usar para ayudar a manejar un recurso natural, como vimos recientemente en Bolivia. Cada aĂ±o, en Cochabamba, el gobierno municipal instala adornos navideĂ±os, incluso cables de lucecitas amarrados a los ĂĄrboles. Pero nadie toma la molestia de bajar las luces. Algunas todavĂa chispean de vez en cuando, casi un aĂ±o despuĂ©s de haber sido clavados al ĂĄrbol. El hierro en los clavos es tĂłxico para los ĂĄrboles, y los agujeros son heridas que dejan entrar enfermedades. Los trabajadores tambiĂ©n hacen daĂ±o a medida que trepan y se bajan de los ĂĄrboles.
La ciudad tiene un grupo, No a la Tala de Ărboles en Cochabamba, que planta ĂĄrboles, tiene reuniones y concientiza al pĂșblico a travĂ©s de la informaciĂłn. Miembros del grupo empezaron a fijarse en los adornos basurales, y sabĂan que los alambres y clavos daĂ±aban la salud de los ĂĄrboles. La ciudad ya ha perdido demasiados ĂĄrboles a la construcciĂłn, la sequĂa y las enfermedades (sobre todo un fitoplasma en el paraĂsoâMelia azedarach). Algunos miembros de âNo a la Talaâ subieron fotos de la chatarra aĂ©rea y breves notas en la pĂĄgina Facebook del grupo.
Los grupos locales pueden ser grandes. Este tiene 13,025 miembros y respondieron de inmediato. Crearon un lema, âpongan mĂĄs luces en sus cerebros, y menos en nuestros ĂĄrboles.â El periĂłdico y bloguistas locales empezaron a publicar, sugiriendo que los adornos viejos tenĂan que ser limpiados, y que los nuevos tenĂan que colocarse con mĂĄs cuidado, y no puestos en los ĂĄrboles vivos. La ciudad lentamente empieza a tomar acciĂłn, bajando algunos de los viejos cables de luces, y hay cada vez mĂĄs conciencia que los adornos hacen daĂ±o a los ĂĄrboles.
Los ĂĄrboles de la ciudad se comparten entre mucha gente, como cualquier recurso comĂșn, como el mar, el agua de riego o el terreno de pastoreo. Como el ecĂłlogo Garret Hardin observĂł hace aĂ±os en su artĂculo âLa Tragedia de los Bienes Comunes,â (1968) un recurso comĂșn es difĂcil de manejar cuando tanta gente lo usa. Sin embargo, hoy en dĂa los medios sociales pueden ayudar a la gente a fijarse en problemas, y organizarse para crear soluciones.
We have run several stories about how farmers learn a lot by watching well-made videos. But we have wondered if the farmers learn much by watching such videos on small screens of ordinary, not-smart phones.
Peter Bwanari is a Malawian DJ (as they are called) who copies videos for people, for a small fee, in the village of Naminjuwa. He knows everyone in the surrounding villages, having lived here all his life. He is a rice farmer, as are his sisters and his friends. Recently heâs started to deliver farming training videos.
After watching a series of rice videos, Peter adopted some of the practices, especially making a nursery and planting in lines. He improved his harvest by four extra bags of rice. He sold three and was able to buy a used laptop for his business.
In the nearby village of Ulolu, we meet one of Peterâs customers, Mr. Matola.
âLast year when I watched the video I noticed that our friends (the people in the video) were applying fertilizer, which was new to me. I did it and the results were amazing. I harvested nine bags. Before, it had been three or two. I applied 25 kg of urea… I also applied fertilizer in the nursery and transplanted in a row, like I saw in the video.â That is a lot of innovation to adopt after watching videos on a phone: urea, nursery, and row planting.
Before deciding to adopt these new practices, Mr. Matola watched the videos five times on the phone, with about seven people, including men, women and children. Farmers learn more when they have their own copy of the videos, to watch several times, studying the content and discussing with others.
As we talk, some of Mr. Matolaâs neighbors see us and stop to listen at a respectful distance, until we have eight or 10 men and women listening to this engaging story of innovation. Mr. Matola has a sense of humor, and a way with words. When we ask him if the videosâ sound and picture quality was good enough on the cell phones he snaps back: âDo you think I would be here telling you all these things I have learned and done if I had not been able to see and hear the video.â The onlookers burst into laughter, and so do we.
Then Mr. Matola shows that he has been thinking about the videos a lot, by asking a serious question. âCan you plant in lines without making a rice nursery?â
You certainly can. It is called direct seeding. We briefly explain it and Mr. Matola listens carefully. The video showed both practices used together, making a seedbed and planting in lines. His question about planting in lines without first making a seedbed shows that he is thinking creatively, and logically, about what he learned in the videos.
Peter is kind enough to take us home to meet his wife and two of his three sisters. His sister, Katherine Lihoma, explains that she watched the rice videos in January 2016, four times on the phone with her sister Tamara. The sisters said that the audio was good and the picture was clear. They learned how to plant in lines and made a nursery for the first time.
The sisters say that they harvested a lot more rice than in the past.
They thought that the videos were easy to understand. They just had to follow the sequence of straightforward steps.
Katherine says: âOnly one farmer came to see the videos on my phone, but a lot of farmers who came to see my garden say that they are going to plant in the same way.â She used to get ten bags of rice, but this year she harvested 15. Dense trees are often difficult to see through, but the rice field is a visible landscape, as Van Mele (2000) observed of farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. It is easier for rice farmers than for orchard growers to see what innovations their neighbors are trying.
We know that farmers learn directly from videos, but we have always thought that it was helpful that the audience could see the videos on a TV set or a larger screen, where the sound and picture were loud and clear. However, watching videos on little cell phones has certain advantages. People can watch the videos even if they have no electricity. They can also watch the videos several times, studying them and mastering the content.
You can watch a video featuring the Matola family here.
You can watch the rice videos in English here. They are also available in Chichewa and many other languages at www.accessagriculture.com.
Van Mele, Paul 2000 Evaluating Farmers’ Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices: A Case Study of Pest Management by Fruit Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Doctoral thesis: Wageningen University, the Netherlands. 225 pp.
Earlier blogs on DJs and videos in Malawi